سال 1390 خورشیدی بر ایرانیان و فارسی زبانان جهان مبارک باد
سال 1390 خورشیدی بر ایرانیان و فارسی زبانان جهان مبارک باد
سال 1390 خورشیدی بر ایرانیان و فارسی زبانان جهان مبارک باد
Solar New Year 1390 on the Iranian and Farsi speakers is Happy
Norooz 1390 نوروز - تحویل سال نو به وقت ایران
ساعت ۲ و ۵۱ دقیقه و ۰۰ ثانیه صبح دوشنبه اول فروردین ۱۳۹۰ در ایران برابر با 15 ربیع الثانی 1432 هجری قمری و 21 مارس 2011 میلادی
مسئولیت مطالب موجود در تقویم به عهده ناشر انست
The Adjustment Bureau is a 2011 American film loosely based on the Philip K. Dick short story, "Adjustment Team". A romantic science fiction thriller, the film was written and directed by George Nolfi and stars Matt Damon and Emily Blunt. The cast also includes Anthony Mackie, John Slattery, Michael Kelly, and Terence Stamp. It contains a score by Thomas Newman, with two songs by Richard Ashcroft ("Future's Bright" for the opening sequence; "Are You Ready" for the closing credits.)
David Norris (Matt Damon) is a young, charismatic politician running for the United States Senate. In 2006 he loses his early lead and is rehearsing his concession speech in the hotel bathroom, where he meets a woman hiding in one of the stalls. Having overheard his speech, she encourages him to be more original and honest. Attracted to each other, they kiss before being interrupted, and Norris leaves to make the speech. Inspired by the woman, Norris goes off script and makes an honest speech that is widely praised and makes him an early favorite for the 2010 Senate race.
Later, a man sits on a park bench and is instructed by an apparent coworker to ensure that Norris spills his coffee on his shirt by 7:05 AM. The man falls asleep and fails in this task. Norris takes the bus to work and meets Elise (Emily Blunt), the woman from the bathroom, who introduces herself and gives him her phone number before leaving. Norris is working at a venture capital firm run by his friend and campaign manager, and arrives to work early. He is surprised to see his boss frozen motionless and being examined by strange men in suits. They chase him, and no matter where he runs they catch up to him. Norris is taken to a warehouse, and Richardson (John Slattery) tells him about the Adjustment Bureau. They have a plan for Norris and are determined to guide his life accordingly. The plan was made by someone they refer to as "the Chairman". They warn that if he tells anyone about them he will be "reset", effectively lobotomized. The plan called for him to meet Elise only once, and he is told to forget her; Richardson destroys the paper with her phone number. Harry Mitchell (Anthony Mackie) feels responsible, having failed to intercept Norris, and tells him more about the Adjustment Bureau and his role as a "caseworker", who is sometimes referred to as an angel.
David fails to find Elise over the next three years, riding the same bus every day hoping to see her. He finally encounters her one day, and they are able to reconnect. The Bureau tries to stop him from building his relationship with her and causes their schedules to separate them. David races across town, fighting the Bureau's abilities to "control his choices" to ensure he will meet Elise again. During the chase, The Bureau uses doors to travel great lengths across New York City.
Richardson discovers that David and Elise were meant to be together in an earlier version of the plan. Harry speculates on whether or not the plan is always correct. David and Elise spend an evening at a party, connecting when David tells her why he decided to become a politician after the loss of his mother and brother. They spend the night together and openly express their strong bond the next morning.
The Bureau decides to have Thompson (Terence Stamp) take authority on the adjustment of David Norris. He takes David to a warehouse and David argues that he has the right to choose his own path. Thompson lets him go, and he runs to Elise's ballet recital. Thompson follows and reveals that not only will David's future as President of the United States be ruined if he stays with Elise, but her future as a dancer will also be diminished. To make a point, he uses his adjustment power to cause Elise to fall and sprain her right ankle. David, overwhelmed with his own future in jeopardy and faced with hurting Elise, abandons her at the hospital.
Eleven months later, David is running for election again and sees an announcement of Elise's imminent wedding. Harry, feeling guilty for earlier events, contacts David. Harry reveals that Thompson exaggerated the negative consequences of David and Elise's possible relationship, and teaches David how to use the doors so he may stop Elise's wedding. He gives David his hat, which empowers David to use the doors.
David finds Elise in the bathroom of the courthouse where she is to be wed. Initially furious and hurt at seeing David after his earlier desertion, Elise is shocked when David reveals the Bureau's existence to her. They are chased by the Bureau across New York. When David and Elise find themselves on Liberty Island, David decides to find the Chairman to end the chase. Elise feels she is losing her mind and almost backs out of the scheme, but finds the conviction to follow David one more time.
David turns the door handle to the left, which Harry warned him that only his kind were supposed to do, and enters the Bureau headquarters. The couple is chased through the Bureau until they are trapped on a rooftop above New York. They embrace and admit their love to each other, assuming the worst is about to happen. When they release each other, the Bureau members surrounding them have disappeared. Thompson appears, only to be relieved of duty by Harry, who tells David and Elise that the Chairman decided to change the plan so that the couple could be together.
- Matt Damon as David Norris
- Emily Blunt as Elise Sellas
- Anthony Mackie as Harry Mitchell
- John Slattery as Richardson
- Anthony Ruivivar as McCrady
- Michael Kelly as Charlie Traynor
- Terence Stamp as ThompsonProduction
The story is loosely based on the Philip K. Dick short story "Adjustment Team", and features a smooth-talking congressman whose political future is thrown in doubt by uncontrollable events and the arrival of a mysterious woman in his life. In early drafts, the character Norris was changed from a real estate salesman, as in the short story, to an up-and-coming politician.
Media Rights Capital funded the film and then auctioned it to distributors, with Universal Studios putting in the winning bid for $62 million. Variety reported Damon's involvement on February 24, 2009, and Blunt's on July 14, 2009. The film was released on March 4, 2011.
Nolfi worked with John Toll as his cinematographer. Shots were planned in advance with storyboards but often changed during shooting to fit the conditions on the day. The visual plan for the film was to keep the camerawork smooth using a dolly or crane and have controlled formal shots when the Adjustment Bureau was in full control, with things becoming more loose and using hand-held cameras when the story becomes less controlled.
The final scene (on the rooftop) was filmed 4 months after the rest of the film had completed shooting and has a different ending than the original. The original final scene had David and Elise meeting the chairman, who turned out to be a woman.
The film is said to have Judeo-Christian theological implications, such as an omnipotent and omniscient God, as well as the concepts of free will and predestination. Moreover, it has been speculated that the Chairman is actually God, while his caseworkers are angels. The director of the film, George Nolfi, stated that the "intention of this film is to raise questions." Because of this many Christians have treated this movie as an allegory to their religion, like the book and film series The Chronicles of Narnia.Release
The film had its world premiere on February 14, 2011, at the Ziegfeld Theatre on 141 West 54th Street in New York City. Writer/director George Nolfi was in attendance along with the cast, including Matt Damon and Emily Blunt.Reception
Critics generally gave the film positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 71% based on 198 reviews, with an average rating of 6.5 out of 10. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three out of a total four stars, describing the movie as "a smart and good movie that could have been a great one if it had been a little more daring. I suspect the filmmakers were reluctant to follow its implications too far."
In its opening weekend in the United States (March 4-6, 2011), The Adjustment Bureau grossed $21,157,730, which was the second most of any film that weekend behind Rango. Its total worldwide gross is $62,187,000.References
- ^ a b c "The Adjustment Bureau". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- ^ "Damon Set For The Adjustment Bureau". Empire. February 25, 2009. http://www.empireonline.com/News/story.asp?nid=24271. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- ^ a b Michael Fleming (February 24, 2009). "Studios weigh star packages". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118000550.html. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- ^ a b c d Michael Fleming (July 14, 2009). "Emily Blunt boards 'Bureau'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118005971. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- ^ Justin Kroll (October 12, 2009). "Ruivivar added to 'Adjustment Bureau'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118009848.html. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- ^ Marc Graser (August 27, 2009). "Thesp makes 'Adjustment' for Universal". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118007850.html. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- ^ a b "‘Adjustment Bureau’: The surreal feels real". The Kansas City Star. http://www.kansascity.com/2011/03/03/2694442/the-adjustment-bureau-damon-and.html. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "Are you angels?” he asks Richardson. “We’ve been called lots of things,” is the reply. “Think of us as case workers.”"
- ^ a b "Matt Damon Defies God’s Insidious Bureaucracy in The Adjustment Bureau". D Magazine. http://frontrow.dmagazine.com/2011/03/matt-damon-defies-gods-insidious-bureaucracy-in-the-adjustment-bureau/. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "You see, “the Chairman” (as the film calls the being responsible for managing the entire universe) has dispatched “case workers” (angels — without wings, but with magical hats) to keep humanity moving according to his carefully choreographed plan."
- ^ Todd McCarthy (February 25, 2011). "Movie review: "The Adjustment Bureau"". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/25/us-film-adjustmentbureau-idUSTRE71O5TY20110225.
- ^ Kaufman, Amy (March 3, 2011). "Movie Projector: 'Rango' expected to shoot down the competition". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/03/movie-projector-rango-adjustment-bureau-beastly-take-me-home-tonight.html. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau". http://www.theadjustmentbureau.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ Steve Weintraub (February 26, 2011). "Writer-Director George Nolfi Exclusive Interview THE ADJUSTMENT BUREAU". http://collider.com/george-nolfi-interview-the-adjustment-bureau/77993. MP3
- ^ http://mix949.com/ileanas-movie-review-the-adjustment-bureau/
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau". Catholic News Service. http://www.catholicnews.com/data/movies/11mv024.htm. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "Though this is certainly not a film for young people -- in addition to the quasi-theological issues underlying the story, David and Elise's liaison becomes physical prematurely -- the metaphysical elements of the plot can be interpreted by mature viewers in a way that squares with Judeo-Christian faith."
- ^ "Finally, an Action Thriller for Religious Thinkers". The Jewish Journal. http://www.jewishjournal.com/film/article/finally_an_action_thriller_for_religious_thinkers_20110307/. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "Even rarer are those films which tackle theological dilemmas, like the age-old apparent contradiction of free will vs. determinism. Judaism, Christianity and Islam all believe in an all-powerful and all-knowing God who controls everything that happens in the world. What, then, is the role of our own decisions? Does man truly possess free will, or does he only have the “appearance” of free will? Did I truly decide of my own free will to marry my wife, or did God orchestrate a complex set of circumstances which forced my hand and caused me to fall in love with this wonderful woman in order to fulfill His unknowable Divine plan? This is precisely the theme of the new film, The Adjustment Bureau (Grace Films Media, now playing."
- ^ a b "The Adjustment Bureau: Fate vs. Free Will, Matt Damon Style". The Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/news/the-adjustment-bureau-fate-vs-free-will-matt-damon-style-49022/. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "How much power exactly do the agents of fate hold over someone’s life? Can free will ever win over fate? And is it free will or fate that orchestrates action? Such are the questions that come to mind throughout George Nolfi’s newest film, “The Adjustment Bureau,” based on the short story by Phillip K. Dick."
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau: Fate vs. Free Will, Matt Damon Style". The Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/news/the-adjustment-bureau-fate-vs-free-will-matt-damon-style-49022/. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "Free Will vs. Predestination: What's Matt Damon Got to Do with It? “It’s not this or that,” responded Detweiler. “Gamers understand this very well, this tension between predestination and free will. It seems like they may be able to live better with that tension.”"
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau: Does God Change Our Minds, or Do We Change God's?". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/cathleen-falsani/the-god-factor-does-god-c_b_833118.html. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "The Chairman -- i.e., God -- has written the stories of our lives and the Big Story of the world."
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau: Fate vs. Free Will, Matt Damon Style". The Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/news/the-adjustment-bureau-fate-vs-free-will-matt-damon-style-49022/. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "“The intention of this film is to raise questions – that’s what art should do,” commented Nolfi about his soon-to-be released motion picture at an earlier Pasadena screening. And that, Mr. Nolfi, it definitely did."
- ^ "Universal Pictures presents the world premiere of The Adjustment Bureau at Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City Monday, February 14, 2011". CNBC. February 8, 2011. http://www.cnbc.com/id/41476978/UNIVERSAL_PICTURES_PRESENTS_THE_WORLD_PREMIERE_OF_THE_ADJUSTMENT_BUREAU_AT_ZIEGFELD_THEATRE_IN_NEW_YORK_CITY_MONDAY_FEBRUARY_14_2011.
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/adjustment_bureau. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- ^ "The Adjustment Bureau". Roger Ebert. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20110302/REVIEWS/110309994. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
Rango is a 2011 American computer-animated comedy western film directed by Gore Verbinski and produced by Graham King. It features the voices of actors Johnny Depp, Isla Fisher, Bill Nighy, Abigail Breslin, Alfred Molina, Harry Dean Stanton, Ray Winstone, Ned Beatty, and Timothy Olyphant.
A pet chameleon (Johnny Depp) becomes accidentally stranded in the Nevada desert after his terrarium falls from his owner's car. After meeting an armadillo (Alfred Molina) who is seeking the mystical Spirit of the West, he narrowly avoids being eaten by a hawk. The next day, after having a surreal nightmare, he meets the lizard Beans (Isla Fisher), a rancher's daughter, who takes him to Dirt, an Old West town populated by desert animals.
Beans discovers that the water reserves, stored in a water-cooler bottle in the bank, are dangerously low. At the saloon, the chameleon, using bravado and improvisation to fit in, presents himself as Rango, a tough drifter. He quickly runs afoul of outlaw Bad Bill (Ray Winstone), narrowly avoiding a shootout when the hawk returns, scaring Bill. The hawk chases Rango until by luck Rango kills the predator by crushing it under an empty water tower he's accidentally made collapse. In response, Mayor Tortoise John (Ned Beatty) appoints Rango the new sheriff. A skeptical Beans demands Rango investigate the water problem while the townsfolk worry that the hawk was the only thing keeping gunslinger Rattlesnake Jake from returning to terrorize them.
That night, Rango inadvertently gives some mole robbers the location of the bank and tools to break into the vault. When the townsfolk find their water stolen, Rango organizes a posse that finds bank manager Merrimack (Stephen Root) dead. They eventually track the robbers to their mountain hideout, only for their leader, Balthazar (Harry Dean Stanton), to reveal that his clan of moles, prairie dogs and others greatly outnumbers the posse. Nabbing the covered wagon water-bottle, the posse flees, chased in a ground and air fight before discovering the bottle is empty. Despite the robbers professing that they'd discovered it empty, the posse returns them to town for trial.
After Rango and Beans deduce that the Mayor has been buying all the nearby land around, Rango recalls the mayor telling him how controlling water equals control of everything. He confronts the mayor, who denies he has done anything wrong and shows Rango that he is building a modern city on the old land. With no proof of the mayor's wrongdoing, Rango leaves, while the mayor orders one of his men to call Rattlesnake Jake (Bill Nighy) — who soon arrives, firing shots with his gatling gun tail, and recognizing that Rango is a fake. Jake runs him out of town after humiliating him and making him admit that everything he told the town about himself is a lie.
Ashamed and no longer knowing who he is, Rango wanders the desert and in a daze meets the Spirit of the West (Timothy Olyphant), a cowboy whom Rango calls the Man with No Name. The Spirit inspires Rango and tells him, "No man can walk out on his own story." With the aid of the armadillo and mystical moving cacti, Rango learns the source of Dirt's water is Las Vegas, and that someone has shut off a water line. Realizing the mayor's hand in this, Rango recruits the hill clan in his plan.
Returning to town, he calls out Jake for a duel — a diversion so that the hill folk and the cacti can flood the town with water. The mayor threatens Beans' life, forcing Rango to surrender. The two are put into the bank vault to drown, while the mayor prepares to shoot Jake, whom he calls a relic. However, Rango manages to take the only bullet from the gun and uses it to break the door of the vault, flooding the room and taking out the mayor and his men. Jake, acknowledging Rango as a worthy opponent, grabs the mayor and drags him into the desert to take his revenge. The citizens of Dirt celebrate the return of the water.
- Johnny Depp as Rango, a chameleon/Lars
- Isla Fisher as Beans, a desert iguana
- Abigail Breslin as Priscilla, a cactus mouse
- Alfred Molina as Roadkill, an armadillo
- Bill Nighy as Rattlesnake Jake, a rattlesnake
- Harry Dean Stanton as Balthazar, a mole
- Ray Winstone as Bad Bill, a gila monster
- Timothy Olyphant as the Spirit of the West
- Ned Beatty as Tortoise John, Mayor of Dirt, a desert tortoise
- Stephen Root as: Doc, a rabbit; Merrimack/Mister Snuggles
- Maile Flanagan as Lucky
- Ian Abercrombie as Ambrose
- Gil Birmingham as Wounded Bird, a crow
- James Ward Byrkit as: Waffles, a desert toad/Gordy/Papa Joad/Cousin Murt/Curlie Knife Attacker/Rodent Kid
- Claudia Black as Angelique, a fox
- Blake Clark as Buford
- John Cothran, Jr. as Elgin
- Patrika Darbo as: Delilah; Maybelle
- George DelHoyo as Señor Flan the Accordian Player
- Charles Fleischer as Elbows
- Beth Grant as Bonnie
- Ryan Hurst as Jedidiah
- Vincent Kartheiser as: Ezekiel; Lasso rodent
- Hemky Madera as Chorizo
- Alex Manugian as Spoons
- Mark McCreery as Parsons
- Joe Nunez as Rock-Eye
- Chris Parson as: Hazel Moats; Kinski; Stump; Clinker; Lenny; Boseefus; Dirt Kid
- Lew Temple as: Furgus; Hitch
- Alanna Ubach as: Boo Cletus; Fresca Miss; Daisy
- Gore Verbinski as: Sergeant Turley; Crevice; Slim; Lupe the Violin Player
- Kym Whitley as Melonee
- Keith Campbell as Sod BusterCrew
- Director: Gore Verbinski
- Screenplay: John Logan
- Story: John Logan, Gore Verbinski, James Ward Byrkit
- Executive producer: Tim Headington
- Producers: Gore Verbinski, Graham King, John B. Carls
- Co-producers: Shari Hanson, Adam Cramer, David Shannon
- Editor: Craig Wood
- Music: Hans Zimmer
- Production designer: Mark "Crash" McCreery
- Animation: Industrial Light & MagicDevelopment
The film was produced by Nickelodeon Movies, Gore Verbinski's production company Blind Wink, and Graham King's GK Films. The CGI animation was created by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM), marking the first feature animation done by ILM, generally a special effects company. During voice recording, the actors were given costumes and sets to "help give them the feel of the Wild West". Star Johnny Depp had a 20-day window in which he could voice his role as Rango, and the filmmakers scheduled the supporting actors so as they could do their scenes with Depp and interact with him. Verbinski said his attempt with Rango was to do a "small" film after the large-scale Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy, but that he underestimated how painstaking and time-consuming animated filmmaking is.Marketing
Rango's teaser trailer was released on June 9, 2010, along with the film's official site, RangoMovie.com. It shows an open desert highway and a orange, wind-up plastic fish floating slowly across the road. On June 28, 2010, the first poster was released, showing the character Rango. A two-minute film trailer was released June 29, 2010. Another trailer was released December 14, 2010. The trailer was fully shown on TV during a Nickelodeon airing of iCarly. It features the song "The Whip" by Locksley. A 30-second spot was made specifically to run during Superbowl XLV on February 6, 2011.Critical
Rango received positive reviews. As of March 4, 2011, it has an 89% rating on the film critics aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes, based on 168 reviews. The site's consensus says, "It may not be as charming as it thinks it is — and it certainly isn't for kids — but Rango is a smart, giddily creative burst of beautifully animated entertainment"  Richard Corliss of Time applauded the "savvy humor" and called the voice actors "flat-out flawless." Bob Mondello of National Public Radio observed that "Rango's not just a kiddie-flick (though it has enough silly slapstick to qualify as a pretty good one). It's a real movie lover's movie, conceived as a Blazing Saddles-like comic commentary on genre that's as back-lot savvy as it is light in the saddle." Frank Lovece of Film Journal International, noting the nervous but improvising hero's resemblance to the Don Knotts character in The Shakiest Gun in the West, echoed this, saying that "with healthy doses of Carlos Castaneda, Sergio Leone, Chuck Jones and Chinatown ... this [is] the kid-movie equivalent of a Quentin Tarantino picture. There's no gory violence or swearing, of course, but there sure is a film buff's parade of great movie moments." Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "some kind of a miracle: An animated comedy for smart moviegoers, wonderfully made, great to look at, wickedly satirical.... The movie respects the tradition of painstakingly drawn animated classics, and does interesting things with space and perspective with its wild action sequences." In one of the few negative reviews, Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune acknowledged its "considerable care and craft" but called it "completely soulless" and that watching it "with a big suburban preview audience was instructive. Not much laughter. Moans and sobs of pre-teen fright whenever Rattlesnake Jake slithered into view, threatening murder."Box office
In the USA and Canada, Rango debuted in 3,917 theaters, grossing $9,608,091 on its first day and $38,079,323 during its opening weekend, ranking number one at the box office. Overseas during its first weekend it earned $16,770,243 in 33 countries. As of March 14, 2011 it has earned $128,677,726 worldwide.Console games
Habbo Hotel also created a quest for players to take part around the time of the film's release. Players who completed the quest were awarded with a Rango achievement badge.References
- ^ a b c "Rango (2011 film)". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=rango.htm. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- ^ Kaufman, Amy (March 3, 2011). "Movie Projector: 'Rango' expected to shoot down the competition". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Archived from the original on 2011-03-06. http://www.webcitation.org/5wzLrCK5S. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- ^ a b Billington, Alex. "Posters: Introducing: Johnny Depp as a Western Chameleon in Rango!", FirstShowing.net, June 28, 2010. WebCitation archive.
- ^ a b Mondello, Bob. "Ride 'Em, Chameleon! 'Rango' A Wild, Wacky Western", NPR.org, March 4, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- ^ "Abigail Breslin in Rango and The Hunger Games?", "The Stacks" (section), "Ink Splots 26" (column), Scholastic Corporation, March 4, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- ^ a b O'Hehir, Andrew. "'Rango' and the rise of kidult-oriented animation", Salon.com, March 2, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- ^ della Cava, Marco R. "'Rango' team can't be caged", USA Today, March 4, 2011, p. 1D. WebCitation archive
- ^ a b c Coyle, Jake. "Movie review: 'Rango'", Associated Press via NorthJersey.com, March 4, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- ^ Credits at official site
- ^ a b Moody, Annemarie. "ILM Jumps to Features with Rango", Animation World Network, September 12, 2008. WebCitation archive.
- ^ a b Vejvoda, Jim. What Exactly is Rango?", IGN.com, June 30, 2010. WebCitation archive
- ^ O'Hara, Helen. "First Baffling Rango Glimpse Is Here", Empire, June 09, 2010. WebCitation archive.
- ^ Gallagher, Brian. "Rango Announcement Teaser and Official Site Launch", MovieWeb.com, June 09, 2010. WebCitation archive.
- ^ Rango - Movie Trailers - iTunes
- ^ Young, John. "'Rango': A peek behind the scenes of Johnny Depp's epic lizard western", Entertainment Weekly, June 30, 2010. WebCitation archive.
- ^ "Rango Trailer Online: Fear, loathing and guitar-playing owls", Empire, 29 June 2010. WebCitation archive.
- ^ Raup, Jordan. "Theatrical Trailer For Gore Verbinski's 'Rango' Starring Johnny Depp", TheFilmStage.com, December 14, 2010. WebCitation archive.
- ^ "Rango (Big Game Spot) (2011)", VideoDetective.com, February 7, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- ^ "Rango". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/rango-2011/. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
- ^ Corliss, Richard. "Rango Review: Depp Plays Clint the Chameleon in Year's Coolest Film", Time, March 14, 2011
- ^ Lovece, Frank. "Film Review: Rango", Film Journal International, March 2, 2011
- ^ Ebert, Roger. Rango (review), Chicago Sun-Times, March 2, 2011
- ^ Phillips, Michael. "'Rango' sells its soul for live-action", Chicago Tribune, March 2, 2011
- ^ Segers, Frank. "'King's Speech' Nabs No. 1 at Int'l Weekend Box Office With $19.4 Million". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/kings-speech-nabs-no-1-164819. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
- ^ "Rango". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=rango.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
- ^ http://www.ea.com/games/rango
- ^ "Rango: The WORLD". http://www.rangotheworld.com/. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- ^ Harrison, Alexa (February 10, 2011). "'Rango' range extends online". Variety. Reed Elsevier Inc.. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118031894. Retrieved 6 March 2011. . WebCitation archive.
Battle: Los Angeles (also known as Battle: LA and World Invasion: Battle Los Angeles, and formerly known as Battle for Los Angeles) is a 2011 military science fiction war film directed by Jonathan Liebesman, and starring Aaron Eckhart, Michelle Rodriguez, Michael Peña, Ne-Yo, David Pham, Ramon Rodriguez and Bridget Moynahan. Released in March 2011, the film is set in modern day Los Angeles and follows a platoon of U.S. Marines during a global alien invasion, and are joined by an Airman and some Army infantry. The events of the film are inspired by the Battle of Los Angeles, a supposed World War II air raid of the city which turned out to be a false alarm caused by several unidentified objects.
On August 11, 2011, mysterious objects thought to be meteorites crash into Earth's oceans near several major cities. These objects are revealed to be spacecrafts, containing hostile alien forces. The U.S. Marines from Camp Pendleton arrive in Los Angeles to defend against alien ground forces and assist in the evacuation of civilians, in preparation for a bombing campaign. Among the military's forces are Michael Nantz (Aaron Eckhart), a U.S. Marine Staff Sergeant. Nantz had planned to retire, but the situation requires him the replace the platoon sergeant of a platoon from "E" Company, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines.
The Platoon Commander, 2nd Lieutenant William Martinez (Ramón Rodríguez), attends a briefing at a FOB (Forward Operating Base). The platoon's mission is to rescue civilians from a LAPD police station with a three-hour time limit before the Air Force bombs the area. They are ambushed by aliens multiple times and suffer casualties. They also encounter a group of U.S. Army soldiers from the 40th Infantry Division, including an Air Force intelligence Technical Sergeant Elena Santos (Michelle Rodriguez). Eventually, the combined team reaches the police station, finding five civilians inside. A helicopter arrives and attempts to evacuate some of the wounded Marines, but it is destroyed by the aliens upon takeoff.
The Marines commandeer a bus for evacuation. During this ordeal, they learn of the aliens' weaknesses and military tactics; finding that alien infantry have a weak point in the torso, that the alien attack aircraft are remote-controlled drones and the aliens monitor and locate Earth miltary forces through monitoring their radio communications. The Marines speculate that there must be a central command center, and that the destruction of this command center would eliminate control of the alien drones, crippling the enemy forces. On a freeway, the bus is attacked and the Marines begin rappelling the civilians off the side of the freeway. One of the civilians, Joe Rincon (Michael Peña), is wounded after firing on the aliens. Martinez is also wounded and sacrifices himself to destroy an enemy unit by detonating explosives inside the bus, shortly after placing Nantz in command of the platoon.
Nantz leads what remains of the platoon outside the bombing zone, and they rest at a convenience store. A news report speculates that the aliens have attacked Earth for its water supply. The team waits for the bombing to begin, but nothing happens. They arrive at the FOB, only to discover that it has already been destroyed by the aliens, nullifying the airstrike. They decide to head for another extraction point, where a helicopter should be available to evacuate them but Rincon dies before they reach the new extraction point. As they are being evacuated, Nantz spots a large black area on the ground, where electric power seems to be disabled. Nantz believes the black area to be the location of the alien command center, and that it is hidden underground. Nantz disembarks from the helicopter, his platoon follows, planning to find the exact location of the command center so they can call in a missile strike.
Going underground, the Marines confirm the presence of a large alien vessel. They return to the surface and succeed in calling in a missile strike using laser designators. However, the command center remains intact, and rises from the ground. The Marines repel alien forces as more missiles are launched at the hovering command center and, eventually, they are able to destroy it. This disables the alien aircraft in the area, forcing the alien ground forces to retreat.
Soon after, the team is extracted to a temporary base in the Mojave Desert, where they are greeted as heroes for their outstanding bravery. All other cities under attack now plan to emulate their strategy, destroying the alien command center in each city. More forces are being sent to Los Angeles to finish off the aliens there. Despite orders to rest, Nantz and the platoon instead rejoin the fight.
- Aaron Eckhart as USMC Staff Sergeant Michael Nantz
- Michelle Rodriguez as USAF Technical Sergeant Elena Santos
- Will Rothhaar as USMC Corporal Lee Imlay
- Bridget Moynahan as Michele Martinez
- Jim Parrack as USMC Lance Corporal Peter Kerns
- Adetokumboh M'Cormack as US Navy Corpsman "Doc" Jilbril Adukwu
- Nzinga Blake as Harmonie Adukwu
- Michael Peña as Joe Rincon
- Bryce Cass as Hector Rincon
- Lucas Till as USMC Corporal Scott Grayston
- Shaffer "Ne-Yo" Smith, Jr. as USMC Corporal Kevin "Specs" Harris
- Gino Anthony Pesi as USMC Corporal Nick Stavrou
- Taylor Handley as USMC Lance Corporal Corey Simmons
- James Hiroyuki Liao as USMC Lance Corporal Steven Mottola
- Joey King as Kirsten
- Aisha Tyler as General Samara Jennings
- David Pham as USMC Corporal Bruce Bolo
- Tisha Campbell-Martin as Maleria Evens
- Noel Fisher as USMC Private First Class Shaun Lenihan
- Lena Clark as News Repoter Brittnie Welles
- Ramón Rodríguez as USMC 2nd Lieutenant William Martinez
- Neil Brown Jr. as USMC Lance Corporal Richard Guerrero
- Cory Hardrict as USMC Corporal Jason Lockett
- Jesica Draké as Karina TurnerProduction
Jonathan Liebesman intended the film to be a realistic depiction of an alien invasion in the style of a war film, taking inspiration from the films Black Hawk Down, Saving Private Ryan, and United 93 for his documentary style of filming. Liebesman also drew inspiration from YouTube videos of marines fighting in Fallujah for the look of the film. As a result the film was not shot in 3D as the director felt that combined with the handheld camera style of shooting would make the audience "throw up in two minutes." Instead standard film was used, intercutting footage from three different cameras. The filmmakers tested shooting the film digitally on a Red camera, but found the camera could not capture the same quality image as standard film. The film was shot for a PG-13 rating, as the director felt making the film overly gory did not suit the more suspenseful tone they were trying to achieve.
The events of the film are inspired by the Battle of Los Angeles, a falsely suspected air raid of Los Angeles that took place during World War II. The filmmakers chose to use this event as the basis for the film in an attempt to help ground the film in reality. The plot of the film suggests the unidentified aircraft were actually alien UFO's on a reconnaissance mission, scouting the Earth to prepare for an eventual attack, which was then covered up by the government, though the filmmakers have stated they do not actually believe this is what happened in real life. Screenwriter Chris Bertolini tried to include humour and suspense as well as action, which he felt were important elements to help draw the audience into the drama. Aaron Eckhart said that the objective of the film was to make as realistic an alien invasion movie as possible; "The goal was: this is a war movie, a documentary style war movie—with aliens in it." The actors went through three weeks of boot camp, in order to learn how to realistically operate as a marine platoon. In addition, Eckhart had done training with the Marines for a few months beforehand in weapons training and drills. On set, military technical advisors worked with the actors to ensure they gave a realistic performance. Eckhart broke his upper arm when he fell off a ledge during an action sequence, but continued to work for the remainder of the film without having it put in a cast.
While the director tried to use practical effects whenever possible, such as for explosions, most of the aliens in the film are computer generated, as the director felt they would be too difficult to achieve practically. Only 10% of the aliens in the film were achieved practically. The invaders were designed by Paul Gerrard, who made them to appear "very alien", neither arthropod nor vertebrate, while Liebesman described them as "genocidal Nazis... They look at us like we look at ants." Liebesman wanted the aliens to appear to function as a real army, complete with medics and different ranking officers, and using tactics such as taking cover to protect themselves. Liebesman also confirmed that the aliens are invading for the Earth's natural resources, specifically because the Earth is 70% covered with water.
Filming took place from September 2009 through December 2009 in Shreveport and Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Louisiana was chosen instead of Los Angeles mainly due to financial advantages. Principal photography began in the second week of September in Shreveport with scenes depicting a destroyed interstate filled with cars, an overturned tanker truck, and a crashed helicopter. Post-production lasted throughout 2010 and into 2011. Special effects used in the principal photography included pyrotechnics. The most climactic of all was a large fireball-producing explosion which was said to have alarmed some residents and passers-by. Film crews implemented use of a large "green-screen" billboard at the base (end) of the "destroyed" interstate to use later for inserting CGI images of Los Angeles.
There was military support for filming, including some scenes filmed at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in California. Numerous Marine units assisted in filming, including infantry from 2nd Battalion 1st Marines, MV-22 Ospreys from VMMT-204 (based at Marine Corps Air Station New River in North Carolina), CH-46 Sea Knights from HMM-268 and HMM-774 (based in Camp Pendleton and Naval Station Norfolk, respectively), and reservists from 3rd Battalion 23rd Marines based in Belle Chasse, Louisiana.
Sony Pictures Entertainment investigated the possibility of legal action against the filmmakers Greg and Colin Strause, who were hired to do visual effects work on Battle: Los Angeles through their special effects company Hydraulx. Sony Pictures suspected the Strause brothers had created their own Los Angeles-based alien invasion film Skyline, which would compete with the Battle: Los Angeles release, by using resources they had gained while working on Battle: Los Angeles without the consent of Sony Pictures. A spokesman for the Strauses responded by saying, "Any claims of impropriety are completely baseless. This is a blatant attempt by Sony to force these independent filmmakers to move a release date that has long been set by Universal and Relativity and is outside the filmmakers' control."Video game
As of 2011, a first-person shooter video game developed by Saber Interactive and published by Konami has been released on Xbox Live Arcade on March 11, the OnLive game service (as part of its Playpack subscription service) on March 15, and will be released for PlayStation Network on March 22, and Steam following soon after. Aaron Eckhart will reprise his role for the game. Players assume the role of Corporal Lee Imlay throughout the gameSoundtrack
The soundtrack for the film was released on March 8, 2011.
The song used in the trailer is "The Sun's Gone Dim and the Sky's Turned Black" by Jóhann Jóhannsson.Critical response
The film opened to mostly negative professional reviews. Review aggregate Rotten Tomatoes reports that 32% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 157 reviews, with an average score of 4.7/10.  The website reported the critical consensus, "Overlong and overly burdened with war movie clichés, Battle: Los Angeles will entertain only the most ardent action junkies". The Rotten Tomatoes "Audience" rating stands at 65%; the "Top Critics" section stands at 22%. Review aggregator Metacritic assigned the film a weighted average score of 37 (out of 100) based on 35 reviews from mainstream critics, considered to be "Generally unfavorable reviews". 
Roger Ebert panned Battle: Los Angeles in a lengthy review, calling the movie "noisy, violent, ugly and stupid" giving the film a mere half star rating. Though he praised Aaron Eckhart's performance, Ebert heavily criticised the films writing, effects designs, camerawork and editing. He closed his review by saying, "When I think of the elegant construction of something like "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral," I want to rend the hair from my head and weep bitter tears of despair. Generations of filmmakers devoted their lives to perfecting techniques that a director like Jonathan Liebesman is either ignorant of, or indifferent to. Yet he is given millions of dollars to produce this assault on the attention span of a generation."
Battle: Los Angeles was given poor reviews by the Los Angeles Times, New York Times, USA Today, Entertainment Weekly, and Variety. Kim Newman of Empire rated the film 2 stars out of 5 and criticized its lack of originality. Nigel Floyd of Time Out rated the film 2 stars saying that it "..lumbers the flat military characters with hackneyed dialogue and corny sentimentality".
Neil Smith of Total Film magazine rated the film as 3 stars out of 5 and summarized, "Imagine Black Hawk Down with ET's instead of Somalis and you'll have the measure of an explosive if functional actioner that will do while we're waiting for summer's big guns to arrive". Both the Radio Times and the Chicago Tribune also rated the film 3 out of 5. IGN rated the film 3 out of 5, stating that the film has spectacular visuals and intense action packed scenes Box office
Battle: Los Angeles debuted in 3,417 theaters, grossing $13,399,310 on its opening day, which was currently the best opening-day gross for 2011. Overall the film made $35,573,187 and ranked #1 on its opening weekend ahead of Red Riding Hood and Mars Needs Moms. The film dropped to #2 after a week when Rango topped the box office on St. Patrick Day. As of March 17, 2011, the film has grossed $50,502,000 in the United States and Canada markets and $16,704,693 in international markets, for a worldwide total of $67,206,693.References
- ^ a b "Battle: Los Angeles: Official Site". February 15, 2011. http://www.battlela.com. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- ^ "Battle: Los Angeles Likely to Beat Red Riding Hood at Box Office". March 10, 2011. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/battle-los-angeles-beat-red-166627. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- ^ http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=battlelosangeles.htm
- ^ a b "'Battle: Los Angeles' Based on a Real-Life UFO Attack (Maybe)". February 15, 2011. http://blog.moviefone.com/2011/02/15/battle-los-angeles-story/. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- ^ "Another Cool Trailer for Battle: Los Angeles". 2010-12-06. http://www.spike.com/blog/another-cool-trailer/102661. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- ^ "New Trailer for Battle: Los Angeles". 2011-11-02. http://www.comicbookmovie.com/fansites/BrentSprecher/news/?a=29902. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f Liebesman, Jonathan (Director). (2011). Battle: Los Angeles [Motion picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Director Jonathan Liebesman, Producer’s Ori Marmur & Jeffrey Churnov, James D. Dever, and Screenwriter Chris Bertolini On Set Interview BATTLE: LOS ANGELES". 2011-01-20. http://collider.com/battle-los-angeles-interview-jonathan-liebesman-ori-marmur-jeffrey-churnov/72974/. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e "Interview: Jonathan Liebesman Talks Battle: Los Angeles". 2010-07-29. http://www.filmschoolrejects.com/interviews/interview-director-jonathan-liebesman-talks-battle-los-angeles.php. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- ^ a b "Jonathan Liebesman on 'Battle: Los Angeles'". 2011-02-23. http://movies.radiofree.com/interviews/battlelo_jonathan_liebesman.shtml. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e "Comic-Con 2010: ‘Battle: Los Angeles’ Press Panel". 2010-07-22. http://screenrant.com/battle-los-angeles-comiccon-2010-robf-69613/. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- ^ "Aaron Eckhart on 'Battle: Los Angeles'". 2011-02-23. http://movies.radiofree.com/interviews/battlelo_aaron_eckhart.shtml. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- ^ "The Real ‘Battle: Los Angeles’ Have Aliens Already Invaded?". 2011-02-25. http://screenrant.com/real-battle-los-angeles-aliens-invaded-rothc-102964/. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- ^ "Aaron Eckhart: Battle: LA Has Same ‘Real Feel’ as The Dark Knight". 2011-02-24. http://screenrant.com/aaron-eckhart-battle-los-angeles-interview-rothc-102902/. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- ^ a b c "Ready for the battle?". The Hindu. March 4, 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-fridayreview/article1507811.ece. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- ^ "Aaron Eckhart, Michael Peña, Michelle Rodriguez, Cory Hardrict, Bridget Moynahan and Ramon Rodriguez On Set Interview BATTLE: LOS ANGELES". 2011-01-27. http://collider.com/battle-los-angeles-interview-aaron-eckhart-michael-pena-michelle-rodriguez/72938/. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- ^ "'Battle: Los Angeles', Aaron Eckhart to shoot in Baton Rouge, Shreveport". http://www.nola.com/movies/index.ssf/2009/07/battle_los_angeles_aaron_eckha.html.
- ^ "Mushroom Cloud Swarms Louisiana From Set of 'Battle: Los Angeles'". http://www.bloody-disgusting.com/news/18490.
- ^ "The Aliens Are Pissed On The Set Of 'Battle: LA'". http://io9.com/5432691/the-aliens-are-pissed-on-the-set-of-battle-la.
- ^ "‘Battle: Los Angeles’ Goes to War with 'Skyline'". http://screenrant.com/battle-los-angeles-skyline-lawsuit-schrad-73991.
- ^ "'Battle: Los Angeles' to Battle 'Skyline' in Court". http://blog.moviefone.com/2010/08/17/battle-los-angeles-to-battle-skyline-in-court.
- ^ "Battle: Los Angeles game announced". Digital Spy. March 4, 2011. http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/gaming/news/a307126/battle-los-angeles-game-announced.html. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- ^ http://www.g4tv.com/videos/51689/Battle-Los-Angeles-Interview-With-Aaron-Eckhart/
- ^ "Battle: Los Angeles Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/battle-los-angeles/. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- ^ http://www.metacritic.com/movie/battle-los-angeles
- ^ Ebert, Roger. "Battle: Los Angeles". http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20110309/REVIEWS/110309992.
- ^ LA Times article: "Movie review: 'Battle: Los Angeles'."
- ^ New York Times article: "Movie Review - Battle: Los Angeles (2011)".
- ^ USA Today article: "Been there, fought that in 'Battle: Los Angeles'."
- ^ Entertainment Weekly review: "Movie Review - Battle: Los Angeles (2011)."
- ^ Variety article: "Battle: Los Angeles."
- ^ Kim Newman (March 10, 2011). "Empire's Battle: Los Angeles Movie Review". Empire. http://www.empireonline.com/reviews/review.asp?FID=136916. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- ^ Nigel Floyd (March 10, 2011). "Battle: Los Angeles Review". Time Out. http://www.timeout.com/film/reviews/89545/battle-los-angeles.html. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- ^ "Battle: Los Angeles review". Total Film. March 10, 2011. http://www.totalfilm.com/reviews/cinema/battle-los-angeles. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- ^ Battle Los Angeles (2011) The Radio Times
- ^ Cliches abound, but 'Battle: Los Angeles' prevails Chicago Tribune
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Mars Needs Moms is a 3D computer-animated sci-fi film directed by Simon Wells and based on a book of the same title by Berkeley Breathed. It was released on March 11, 2011 by Walt Disney Pictures. The film stars both Seth Green (performance capture) and newcomer Seth Dusky (voice) as the main character Milo, and was the final product of Robert Zemeckis' studio ImageMovers Digital. The title is a reference to American International Pictures' Mars Needs Women (1966).
Characters and story
Nine-year-old Milo (Seth Green, voice-over by Seth Dusky) finds out just how much he needs his mom (Joan Cusack) when she's kidnapped by Martians who plan to steal her "momness" for their own young.
Milo's quest to save his mom involves stowing away on a spaceship, navigating an elaborate, multi-level planet and taking on the alien nation and their leader, the Supervisior (Mindy Sterling). With the help of tech-savvy underground Earthman Gribble (Dan Fogler), his bionic underground pet Two-Cat (Dee Bradley Baker) and rebellious Martian Ki (Elisabeth Harnois), Milo finds his way back to his mom.
- Seth Green as Milo (motion capture/narration)
- Seth Dusky as Milo (voice only)
- Joan Cusack as Milo's mom
- Tom Everett Scott as Milo's dad
- Elisabeth Harnois as Ki
- Dan Fogler as Gribble
- Mindy Sterling as The Supervisor
- James Earl Jones as Ja Mi
- Breckin Meyer as Spangro
- Billy Dee Williams as Myzic
- Kevin Cahoon as Wingnut
- Ryan, Robert and Raymond Ochoa as Martian Hatchlings
- Liam and Edgar Wells as Robot Martians (as Wells Brothers)
- Dee Bradley Baker as Two-CatPromotion
The first theatrical trailer for the movie became available online November 23, 2010 from Yahoo! Movies and premiered with Tangled, along with a shorter version of the trailer premiering with Tron: Legacy. A second theatrical trailer was released February 18, 2011, again by Yahoo! Movies. A third was released on the official website.Critical response
Mars Needs Moms earned only $1,725,000 on its first day, for a weekend total of $6,825,000. This was the tenth worst opening ever for a film playing in 3000+ theaters. Due to its very high budget of $150 million, the film is a massive box office bomb and is on track to see losses of well over $100 million for parent studio Disney. On March 14, 2011, Brook Barnes in The New York Times, commented that it was rare for a Disney-branded film to do so badly, with the reason for its poor performance being the subject (a mother kidnapped from her child), the unpopular style of animation, which crosses the uncanny valley threshold, and negative word of mouth on social networks, along with poor writing.References
- ^ Kaufman, Amy (March 10, 2011). "Movie Projector: 'Battle: Los Angeles' will rule, 'Mars Needs Moms' will bomb". Los Angeles (Tribune Company). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/03/movie-projector-battle-los-angeles-red-riding-hood-mars-needs-moms.html. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- ^ "Mars Needs Moms (2011)". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=marsneedsmoms.htm. Retrieved 2011-3-13.
- ^ Stewart, Andrew (2010-03-09). "Disney sets date for 'Mars'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118016278. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- ^ "Seth Green, Digitally and Sonically Erased From 'Mars Needs Moms'". Yahoo! Movies. http://blog.movies.yahoo.com/blog/851-seth-green-digitally-and-sonically-erased-from-mars-needs-moms?nc. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
- ^ "Mars Needs Moms Trailers & Video Clips". Yahoo! Movies. http://movies.yahoo.com/movie/1810079616/trailer. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- ^ http://insidemovies.ew.com/2011/03/13/box-office-report-battle-los-angeles/
- ^ http://www.nypost.com/p/blogs/movies/box_office_mars_needs_moms_megaton_rXfg1tZS83Hojg0gEzTRfK
- ^ http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/worstopenings.htm?page=WRSTOPN30&p=.htm
- ^ Barnes, Brook. "Many Culprits in Fall of a Family Film". The New York Times, March 14, 2011.
The Lincoln Lawyer is an American mystery suspense thriller film adapted from a novel of the same name by Michael Connelly, starring Matthew McConaughey and Marisa Tomei. The film is directed by Brad Furman, with a screenplay written by John Romano.
Mickey Haller (Matthew McConaughey) is a Los Angeles criminal defense attorney who operates out of the back of his Lincoln sedan. Haller has spent most of his career defending garden-variety criminals, until he lands the case of his career: Louis Roulet (Ryan Phillippe), a Beverly Hills playboy and son of a major businessman who is accused of attempted rape and attempted murder. But the seemingly straightforward case suddenly develops into a deadly game of survival for Haller.
Haller is chosen to represent Roulet who is seemingly innocent and was caught up at the wrong place at the wrong time. As Haller analyzes the pictures and evidence, notably, the injuries the victim sustained, it becomes more evident that it is similar to a past case he had which landed a previous client, Jesus Martinez (Michael Peña), in jail for murder with a 15 to life sentence rather than the needle, despite always proclaiming his innocence based on the presence of "another guy" who was present with the victim at around the time of the murder.
Haller visits Martinez in jail, and, upon showing him a picture of Roulet, Martinez becomes agitated, claiming Haller set him up. Haller now realizes Roulet could be the killer of that previous case, but is distraught that due to client-attorney confidentiality, he cannot directly claim Roulet's involvement in the murder based on Martinez' behaviour. Haller's investigator Frank is mysteriously killed after leaving a voicemail stating to have found a ticket that could prove Roulet guilty of the previous case. Before he could release more information in the voicemail, Frank hangs up stating there was a knock at the door. Haller is suspected of killing Frank due to a collectors gun missing from his house that was used to kill Frank, which, it was implied, was taken by Roulet one night when Haller found he had broken in to his apartment. Roulet took the gun and used it to kill Frank in an attempt to threaten Haller into defending him.
Roulet is found innocent in the current case (due to the use of a prison informant with a history of lying by the prosecution) but is then arrested immediately for the previous murder case due to the uncannily accurate description of the murder victim the informant explained Roulet told him. It suggests that Haller set up the entire event, making the report of Roulet's involvement in the prior murder emerge from the side of the prosecution and not the defence. Haller acquires a gun from his driver, Earl, for any retribution he may face from Roulet. Roulet is released due to lack of evidence, and he attempts to kill Haller's family, but Haller finds out in time to get them out of the house. He meets Roulet as Roulet arrives at Haller's family's house. Roulet is attacked by the bikers Haller has previously represented many times and Haller walks away, suggesting he had organised the attack. Upon arriving home, he discovers Roulet's mother inside and she shoots him with the same gun that shot Frank. She confesses that it was she who killed Frank. After she shoots Haller, Haller shoots her and kills her.
After being discharged from the hospital, Haller discovers that Frank found a parking ticket issued to Roulet near the house of the murdered victim, making him a suspect in the murder. It is also explained that Martinez will be released.
- Matthew McConaughey as Mickey Haller
- Ryan Phillippe as Louis Roulet
- Marisa Tomei as Margaret McPherson
- William H. Macy as Frank Levin
- Michaela Conlin as Detective Heidi Sobel
- Josh Lucas as Ted Minton
- Laurence Mason as Earl
- Frances Fisher as Mary Windsor
- John Leguizamo as Val Valenzuela
- Michael Peña as Jesus Martinez
- Margarita Levieva as Reggie Campo
- Bob Gunton as Cecil Dobbs
- Katherine Moennig as Gloria
- Reggie Baker as Judge Fullbright
- Mackenzie Aladjem as Hayley Haller
- Bryan Cranston as Detective Lankford
- Michael Paré as Detective Kurlen
- Pell James as Lorna TaylorMarketing
The trailer debuted on the 20th of November, 2010. A second trailer, which provided more plot details, was released on the 23rd of December, 2010.Reception
The film has recieved critical acclaim, scoring an 81% "certified fresh" rating on rotten tomatoes. Critics consensus: It doesn't offer any twists on the predictable courtroom thriller formula, but with a charming Matthew McConaughey leading its solid cast, The Lincoln Lawyer offers briskly enjoyable entertainment. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 63, based on 29 reviews, which indicates "generally favorable reviews". Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun Times gave the film 3 stars out of a possible 4, saying ,“The plotting seems like half-realized stabs in various directions made familiar by other crime stories. But for what it is, The Lincoln Lawyer is workmanlike, engagingly acted and entertaining.”
After watching a rough cut of the film on November 12, Michael Connelly, author of "The Lincoln Lawyer", said:
“ The movie comes out March 18. A couple days ago I saw an unfinished cut of it and could not be happier. I thought it was very loyal to the story and the character of Mickey Haller. Matthew McConaughey nails him. Those who loved the book will love the movie, I think. Those who don't know the book will love it just the same. The casting and acting is really superb. Like I said, I could not be happier. I'm very excited and can't wait to see what fans of the book think. ”
- ^ Kaufman, Amy (2011-03-17). "Movie Projector: Matthew McConaughey, Bradley Cooper and an alien battle for No. 1". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/03/movie-projector-paul-limitless-the-lincoln-lawyer.html. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- ^ McDonough, Molly. "Matthew McConaughey to Star in Legal Thriller". ABA Journal. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- ^ "The Lincoln Lawyer trailers & clips". Matt's Movie Reviews. 2011-01-06. http://www.mattsmoviereviews.net/trailers-lincoln-lawyer.html.
- ^ The Lincoln Lawyer Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic. Metacritic. Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
- ^ The Lincoln Lawyer Movie Adaptation. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
Limitless is a 2011 American techno-thriller film directed by Neil Burger and starring Bradley Cooper, Abbie Cornish, and Robert De Niro. It is based on the 2001 novel The Dark Fields by Alan Glynn with the screenplay by Leslie Dixon. The film was released in the United States and Canada on March 18, 2011. It is scheduled to be released in the United Kingdom on March 23, 2011.
Eddie Morra (Bradley Cooper) is a writer who lives in New York City and has recently been dumped by his girlfriend Lindy (Abbie Cornish) in addition to failing to meet the deadline to turn in his new book, which he hasn't written yet. One day, Eddie comes across Vernon Grant (Johnny Whitworth), the brother of his ex-wife Melissa Grant (Anna Friel). Vernon is a drug dealer who offers Eddie a sample of a new drug, NZT-48, which will make him more focused. Eddie accepts and, much to his surprise, the drug increases his intelligence and improves his focus.
Eddie asks Vernon for more of the drug, which is illegal, and Vernon agrees. When Eddie goes to Vernon's apartment, he finds Vernon dead. He also finds a stash of NZT hidden in the oven alongside a book with several names and some money, which he steals. With Vernon's money and the NZT, Eddie creates a new image for himself and abandons writing to enter the finances market. Becoming rich at a incredibly fast pace and is soon being employed by powerful businessman Carl Von Loon (Robert DeNiro). Eddie also gets back together with Lindy and starts feeling he is being stalked by a man in a tan coat (Tomas Arana). Soon, the side-effects of NZT appear: Eddie has to keep moving forward or he feels physically and mentally restless, and starts having memory lapses in which his mind appears to be oblivious to the actions of his body.
Failing to accomplish a task assigned to him by Carl because of the lack of NZT and fearing he might have killed a woman he had sex with in the night before, during one of his memory lapses, Eddie calls the names in Vernon's book and discovers that they are all dead or hospitalized because of their connection with the drug. He is chased by the Man in Tan Coat, but escape and meets Melissa, who reveals that she had also taken NZT. She reveals that withdrawal causes death or a serious damage of the mental faculties, which she is going through. Eddie is warned to reduce the dosages until he can stop, before it's too late.
Eddie tries to do so, but, with the lack of it, he starts to feel ill. With no other options, he tells Lindy everything and has her pick up some from her apartment, where he had hidden the rest of his stash. On her way back, Lindy is chased by the Man in Tan Coat, but manages to escape by taking a dose herself. Back at her apartment, Lindy gives Eddie the drugs and wishes him good luck, as she wants to have nothing to do with Eddie's situation.
Eddie pays a chemist to produce more NZT, and starts being harassed by Gennady (Andrew Howard), a Russian mobster with whom Eddie had made a deal earlier. Gennady has taken one of Eddie's pills and become addicted as well. To make things worse, he is named a suspect of the death of the woman he had sex with. To protect himself, Eddie moves to a house with reinforced security and hires a lawyer named Morris Brandt (Ned Eisenberg), who clears him of the murder charges.
One day, Eddie's house is invaded by Gennady and his men, who want the drugs. Eddie discovers that Gennady melts the pills and injects them directly into his bloodstream, so, he stabs Gennady to death with a kitchen knife and drinks his blood, which contains the substance. He uses the rush to kill the rest of Gennady's men and dispose of their bodies.
Eddie also discovers that the Man in Tan Coat works for Hank Atwood (Richard Bekins), a businessman who was planning to merge his company with Carl's, but fell ill due to NZT withdrawal before he could sign the papers. Desperate for a dose, Atwood had the Man in Tan Coat tail Eddie and frame him for the death of the woman in order to steal his stash, but Brandt, who was also working for Atwood, steals it first and keeps it for himself, causing Atwood's death. Eddie and the Man in Tan Coat make a deal and kill Brandt, allowing Eddie to retrieve his stash.
12 months later, Eddie has published his book and become a Senator, with a chance to run for President of the United States of America. One day, he is approached by Carl, who reveals that he has bought the pharmaceutical company that created NZT and destroyed all labs of it, including Eddie's. In exchange for a unlimited supply of the substance, Eddie is to push forward Carl's agendas. However, Eddie reveals that he had his team reverse-engineer the NZT, creating a permanent dose which he has taken, giving him all the benefits and none of the side-effects of the drug. With no leverage against Eddie, Carl leaves, defeated. Eddie then meets with Lindy, with whom he has married, and they have lunch together.
- Bradley Cooper as Eddie Morra
- Robert De Niro as Carl Van Loon
- Abbie Cornish as Lindy
- Anna Friel as Melissa
- Johnny Whitworth as Vernon Gant
- Robert John Burke as Pierce
- Tomas Arana as Man in Tan Coat
- T.V. Carpio as Valerie
- Patricia Kalember as Mrs. AtwoodProduction
Limitless is based on the 2001 novel The Dark Fields by Alan Glynn. The film is directed by Neil Burger based on a screenplay by Leslie Dixon, who had acquired rights to the source material. Dixon wrote the adapted screenplay for less than her normal cost in exchange for being made one of the film's producers. She and fellow producer Scott Kroopf approached Burger to direct the film, at the time titled The Dark Fields. For Burger, who had written and directed his previous three films, the collaboration was his first foray solely as director. With Universal Pictures developing the project, actor Shia LaBeouf was announced in April 2008 to be cast as the film's star.
The project eventually moved to development under Relativity Media with Universal distributing through Relativity's Rogue Pictures. By November 2009, actor Bradley Cooper replaced LaBeouf in the starring role. Actor Robert De Niro was cast opposite Cooper by March 2010, and The Dark Fields began filming in Philadelphia the following May. Filming also took place in New York City. For a car chase scene filmed in Puerto Vallarta, filmmakers sought a luxury car. Italian carmaker Maserati provided two Maserati GranTurismo coupes for free in "a guerrilla-style approach" to product placement. By December 2010, The Dark Fields was re-titled Limitless.Scientific accuracy
Physics professor James Kakalios said it was plausible that medical science could improve intelligence, but that neurochemistry was not advanced enough for it to be possible currently. Kakalios also said the notion used in the film that human beings can only access 20 percent of their brains is a myth; 100% of it is used at different times. Kakalios said if such a pill existed, a person running out of the supply would actually experience a rebound effect, becoming less intelligent than before.Release
Limitless had its world premiere in New York City on March 8, 2011. It was released commercially in the United States and Canada on March 18, 2011. It grossed between $5.5 million and $6.3 million on its opening day and is expected to gross between $15 million and $18 million on its opening weekend to rank first at the box office. It will be released in the United Kingdom on March 23, 2011.
Before the film's release, Box Office Mojo called Limitless a wild card for its box office predictability, highlighting its "clearly articulated" premise and the pairing of Cooper and De Niro but questioned a successful opening. The film will also be Cooper's first time opening a film since his lift to fame in The Hangover (2009). The actor's drawing power will be compared to others of the same demographic, such as Matt Damon or Matthew McConaughey.Critical reception
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 64% based on reviews from 112 critics and reports a rating average of 6.2 out of 10. It reported the overall consensus, "Although its script is uneven, Neil Burger directs Limitless with plenty of visual panache, and Bradley Cooper makes for a charismatic star." At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 58 based on 33 reviews.
Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter wrote, "Limitless should be so much smarter than it is," believing that it took conventional plot turns and stuck closely to genre elements like Russian gangsters and Wall Street crooks. Honeycutt reserved praise for Cooper, Abbie Cornish, and Anna Friel. He also commended cinematographer Jo Willems' camerawork and Patrizia von Brandenstein's production design in the film's array of locales.
Variety's Robert Koehler called Limitless a "propulsive, unexpectedly funny thriller". Koehler wrote, "What makes the film so entertaining is its willingness to go far out, with transgressive touches and mind-bending images that take zoom and fish-eye shots to a new technical level, as the pill enables Eddie to experience astonishing new degrees of clarity, perception and energy." He said of Cooper's performance, "Going from grungy to ultra-suave with a corresponding shift in attitude, Cooper shows off his range in a film he dominates from start to finish. The result is classic Hollywood star magnetism, engaging auds physically and vocally, as his narration proves to be a crucial element of the pic's humor." The critic also positively compared Willems' cinematography to the style in Déjà Vu (2006) and commended the tempo set by the film's editors Naomi Geraghty and Tracy Adams and by composer Paul Leonard-Morgan.See also
- Intellectual giftedness
- Charly, a 1968 American drama film also featuring increase in human intelligence
- Flowers for Algernon, a 1958 short story on which Charly is basedReferences
- ^ Kaufman, Amy (March 17, 2011). "Movie Projector: Matthew McConaughey, Bradley Cooper and an alien battle for No. 1". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/03/movie-projector-paul-limitless-the-lincoln-lawyer.html.
- ^ a b Siegel, Tatiana (April 13, 2008). "Shia LaBeouf visits 'Dark Fields'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117983960.
- ^ a b Macaulay, Scott (Winter 2011). "Possible Side Effects". Filmmaker. http://www.filmmakermagazine.com/news/2011/01/possible-side-effects/.
- ^ Siegel, Tatiana (November 5, 2009). "Bradley Cooper 'Fields' film offer". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118010945.
- ^ Siegel, Tatiana (March 3, 2010). "De Niro to star in 'Fields'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118016026.
- ^ Miller, Daniel (March 11, 2011). "How Maserati Landed Spots in 'Limitless' and 'Entourage' for Free". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/how-maserati-landed-spots-limitless-166655.
- ^ Puente, Maria (December 17, 2010). "First look: 'Limitless' power comes in the form of a pill". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/2010-12-17-limitless17_ST_N.htm.
- ^ Bahn, Christopher (March 7, 2011). "'Limitless' brainpower plot isn't all that crazy". MSNBC. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/41953704/ns/today-entertainment/. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- ^ Schaefer, Stephen (March 9, 2011). "'Limitless' bow reaches full potential". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118033648.
- ^ "Limitless (2011)". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=darkfields.htm. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- ^ McClintock, Pamela (March 18, 2011). "Friday Box Office: 'Limitless' Pulls Ahead of Crowded Field". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/friday-box-office-limitless-lincoln-169251.
- ^ "New Limitless UK Posters". Empire. February 21, 2011. http://www.empireonline.com/news/story.asp?NID=30226. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- ^ Subers, Ray (March 2, 2011). "March 2011 Preview". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=3099&p=.htm. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- ^ Thompson, Gary (March 15, 2011). "Bradley Cooper hopes 'Limitless' will propel him from celeb to superstar". Philadelphia Daily News. http://www.philly.com/philly/entertainment/20110315_Bradley_Cooper_hopes__Limitless__will_propel_him_from_celeb_to_superstar.html.
- ^ "Limitless Movie Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/the_dark_fields/. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ^ "Limitless". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/limitless. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ^ Honeycutt, Kirk (March 15, 2011). "Limitless: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/limitless-film-review-167424.
- ^ Koehler, Robert (March 14, 2011). "Film Reviews: Limitless". Variety. http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117944818?refCatId=31.
Paul is a 2011 science fiction comedy film directed by Greg Mottola and starring an ensemble cast headed by Simon Pegg, Nick Frost and the voice of Seth Rogen. It was also written by Frost and Pegg. The film received generally postive reviews. It was number one at the United Kingdom box office in its first weekend, surpassing Gnomeo & Juliet, and was released in North America on March 18, 2011.
The film opens in the United States in 1947, with a dog named Paul scratching to be let outside, where the sky is covered in eerie lights. When his owner, a young girl, lets him out, he is crushed by a crash landing spaceship. The girl pulls an alien (Seth Rogen) from the wreckage, and names him Paul. He is taken away by the Government and held prisoner for 60 years. He eventually decides to escape from his holding place, Area 51.
Two English comic book nerds named Graeme Willy (Simon Pegg) and Clive Gollings (Nick Frost) have travelled to America for the annual Comic-Con convention and to visit all the sites of major extraterrestrial importance. On the way to their second site, they stop off at a café, where two hunters confront them. As they hurriedly leave, they reverse into the hunters' car, leaving a dent. At the next site, they see a car blasting towards them and, believing it to be the hunters, they speed off in their RV. Eventually, the car catches up, and they realize that it is not the hunters. As it overtakes, it speeds off the road, rolls several times, and comes to a halt in a field. The two shocked men get out to investigate. When they realize that the vehicle is empty and begin phoning the emergency services, they hear a voice saying 'I wouldn't do that if I were you'. They turn around, and a little grey alien comes into view, smoking a cigarette, and tells Clive to put the phone down. Clive faints, and Paul, introducing himself, explains to Graeme that he is on the run and needs their help. Graeme agrees to let him come. When Clive wakes up, he is not happy about the idea, but is eventually brought around. Not long after they depart, a shadowy government agent, Zoil (Jason Bateman), arrives at the site of the crashed car; he informs his mysterious female superior over the radio that he's closing in on Paul, and she recommends using local law enforcement as back-up. Zoil then recruits two inept FBI agents, Haggard (Bill Hader) and O'Reilly (Joe Lo Truglio), to aid in his mission, without telling them the nature of their target.
Paul, Graeme and Clive pull into a motor park run by Ruth (Kristen Wiig), a Creationist Christian, and her controlling father Moses (John Carroll Lynch). The trio bond around a fire, and Paul reveals that, ever since he was captured by the government, he had been advising them in all manner of scientific and sociological achievements (including giving Steven Spielberg the idea for E.T.). However, he discovered that he had outlived his usefulness as a receptacle of knowledge, and the government were now intending to surgically remove Paul's brain in an attempt to harness his abilities. With help from a friend inside Area 51, Paul sent an S.O.S. to his home planet, and his people were now en route to pick him up. The government pushed up the schedule for Paul's surgery, however, prompting his rapid escape.
The next morning, Paul inadvertently reveals himself to Ruth, and then shatters her faith by sharing his knowledge of the universe via telepathic link. The trio are then forced to kidnap her and make a hasty escape. At first horrified, Ruth suddenly becomes eager to sin, which she was not allowed to do by her father. She initially doesn't trust Paul, but he heals her eye, as she has been blind in it since the age of four.
Meanwhile, Zoil, Haggard and O'Reilly talk to Ruth's father, who claims she was abducted by a 'demon'. Haggard finds a drawing of Paul that Graeme did, and becomes suspicious of Zoil's motives, especially after he accidentally over-hears Zoil report in over the radio. When Graeme, Clive and Ruth encounter the hunters from earlier, and are saved by Paul, Haggard later has his suspicions confirmed by showing the hunters Graeme's drawing, which elicits a fearful response.
Whilst stopping in a small town, O'Reilly accidentally encounters Paul in a comic book shop, prompting the foursome to flee. When Haggard and O'Reilly tell Zoil what they saw, he pulls a gun on them, and orders them to return to headquarters, before going after the RV on his own. Contrary to his orders, however, the two FBI agents follow Zoil in the same direction.
Eventually, Paul reveals his intention to return to the girl whose dog he crashed his ship on and who subsequently saved his life, who is now an old woman, Tara Walton (Blythe Danner). After spending her life being ridiculed for what she said she saw, Tara seems grateful to see that Paul simply exists. She turns her gas cooker on to make tea, but is interrupted by Haggard and O'Reilly on one side, and Zoil on the other. As the motley crew drives off with Paul, O'Reilly shoots at them, and the gas ignites, destroying the house. A winded Zoil tries to follow, but Haggard takes off first, running Moses (who'd also been tracking the RV) off the road, and catching up to the RV. However, thanks to an error of judgement, Haggard accidentally drives off a cliff, and is seemingly killed, leaving Zoil in hot pursuit. He reassures his superior that he'll have Paul within an hour, but she declares herself tired of waiting, and informs Zoil that she's ordered a military response, prompting Zoil to shoot his radio.
When Paul, Graeme, Clive, Ruth and Tara arrive at the rendezvous, they set off a signal and wait. Eventually, eerie orange lights show up over the surrounding trees, and everyone believes that it is Paul’s race. However, it is an army helicopter, with 'the Big Guy' (Sigourney Weaver) on board, Zoil's shadowy superior. As she and three troops backing her up move to shoot Paul, Zoil arrives, and it's revealed that he was Paul's inside contact who had helped him to escape. Zoil takes out the men, but is shot in the shoulder. Tara knocks out 'the Big Guy', but Moses appears with a shotgun and shoots Graeme dead. Paul heals him, but inflicts the damage to himself (a possible side effect of his healing powers mentioned earlier in the film). Paul then collapses, exhausted. For a while, the other characters stand around his apparently lifeless body sprawled on the grass. Then, coughing, Paul props himself up, having healed himself. 'The Big Guy' regains consciousness, but is immediately crushed by the arriving alien ship. Paul leaves in the ship, and takes Tara with him.
During the credits, Graeme, Clive and Ruth are shown two years later, again at a comic convention, promoting their new mega-successful comic book, "Paul".
- Simon Pegg as Graeme Willy
- Nick Frost as Clive Gollings
- Seth Rogen as the voice of Paul
- Kristen Wiig as Ruth Buggs
- Jason Bateman as Special Agent Lorenzo Zoil
- Bill Hader as Agent Haggard
- Joe Lo Truglio as O'Reilly
- Jane Lynch as Pat Stevenson
- Sigourney Weaver as "The Big Guy"
- Blythe Danner as Tara Walton
- Mia Stallard as Young Tara
- John Carroll Lynch as Moses Buggs
- David Koechner as Gus
- Jesse Plemons as Jake
- Jeffrey Tambor as Adam Shadowchild
- Luke Jackson as Ford
- Paula LaBaredas as Princess Leia
- Justin Reed as Comic Con Guest
Pegg and Frost have described the film as a love letter to Steven Spielberg. Mentioning the project to Spielberg he suggested he might make cameo appearance, and a scene was added to include him. According to Robert Kirkman, he, along with Invincible co-creator Cory Walker and current Invincible artist Ryan Ottley, had a cameo in the movie.
To help with the script Pegg and Frost went on their own road trip across America and used ideas from it to add to the script.
Principal photography wrapped on September 9, 2009, with additional scenes filmed in July 2010 at the Albuquerque Convention Center, which was designed to look like the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con. After obtaining permission to use the Comic-Con brand, the settings had to be changed to avoid crowds and extras were used to portray attendees since there had been some issues regarding filming inside San Diego's actual convention center. As a result, only exterior shots of the San Diego Convention Center were filmed on the streets of Downtown, San Diego.
During filming, Joe Lo Truglio was a stand-in for the character Paul, the only character who was created by CGI. Seth Rogen did some motion capture in pre-production and voice work during post-production.
A teaser trailer was released on October 18, 2010. The teaser trailer featured the song "Just the Two of Us" by Grover Washington, Jr. and "Run With the Wolves" by The Prodigy. It was shown before certain screenings of Vampires Suck, Let Me In, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1, Burke and Hare, The Green Hornet and The Social Network in the United Kingdom. The trailer featured the music "It Came Out of the Sky" by Creedence Clearwater Revival and "All Over The World" by the Electric Light Orchestra.
The film had its world premiere in London on 7 February 2011.
Empire gave four stars out of five stating, "Broader and more accessible than either Shaun Of The Dead or Hot Fuzz, Paul is pure Pegg and Frost - clever, cheeky and very, very funny. You'll never look at E. T. in the same way again." SFX also gives the film four stars out of five, saying "the film veers dangerously close to alienating (no pun intended) all but its geek core audience, [though] the more obvious concessions to a mainstream crowd [are] never enough to derail the film’s laugh-a-minute ride"; SFX also calls it a "triumph of visual effects, convincing characterisation and bad taste humour."
Peter Bradshaw gave the film two stars out of five and called it a "goofy, amiable piece of silliness" exhibiting "self-indulgence" and possessing a "distinct shortage of real gags." On the same scale Nigel Andrews gave the film only one star, calling it a "faltering extraterrestrial knockabout." The Independent grades the film two stars out of five, saying "Pegg is likeable as usual, Frost more doltish than usual, and Kristen Wiig an appealing convert from Bible thumper to ladette", and notes that "from time to time, clever ideas rear their heads—like the idea that 'Paul' has been the brains behind all SF and UFO initiatives for the last 30 years, including Close Encounters and The X-Files—but they soon return to the film's default setting of laddish japes and a conviction that the word 'cocksucker' will always get a laugh."
- ^ Kaufman, Amy (2011-03-17). "Movie Projector: Matthew McConaughey, Bradley Cooper and an alien battle for No. 1". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/03/movie-projector-paul-limitless-the-lincoln-lawyer.html. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- ^ Paul results - Box Office Mojo website
- ^ "About the Film". What is Paul? Official website. http://blog.whatispaul.com/about-the-film/.
- ^ Fleming, Michael (2009-05-26). "Seth Rogen to voice 'Paul' for Pegg". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118004183.html. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- ^ Variety staff (2009-06-17). "Sigourney Weaver, Blythe Danner, Joe Lo Truglio". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118005089.html. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- ^ http://entertainment.ie/pages/Paul/paul-interview.asp
- ^ http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/film-cinema/stars-invade-for-alien-film-paul-and-reveal-love-for-spielberg-2535798.html
- ^ Robert Kirkman (August 9, 2009). "Flying out tomorrow to New Mexico...". Twitter (via Echofon). http://twitter.com/RobertKirkman/status/3216236821. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- ^ Paul featurette Matt's Movie Reviews Paul trailer. Matt's Movie Reviews. 2010-10-18. http://www.mattsmoviereviews.net/trailers-paul.html.
- ^ Principal Photography Wraps!. What Is Paul? - The Paul Production Blogs. September 9, 2009. http://blog.whatispaul.com/2009/09/09/principal-photography-wraps/. Retrieved 2010-07-25. Paul - Principal Photography Wrap-up Blog on YouTube
- ^ George 'El Guapo' Roush (July 15, 2010). "Paul Set Visit Report. The New Simon Pegg/Nick Frost Comedy!". LatinoReview.com. http://www.latinoreview.com/news/paul-set-visit-report-the-new-simon-pegg-nick-frost-comedy-10495. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- ^ "Matt's Movie Reviews Paul trailer". Matt's Movie Reviews. 2010-10-18. http://www.mattsmoviereviews.net/trailers-paul.html.
- ^ a b Nigel Andrews (9 February 2011). "Film releases: February 10". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/0520675e-3477-11e0-9ebc-00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=8557ca84-300e-11da-ba9f-00000e2511c8,print=yes.html. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- ^ "Paul (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/paul/.
- ^ Chris Hewitt. "Paul Review". Empire. Emap. http://www.empireonline.com/reviews/reviewcomplete.asp?FID=136467.
- ^ Jordan Farley (11 February 2011). "Paul – film review". SFX. http://www.sfx.co.uk/2011/02/11/paul-film-review/. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- ^ Peter Bradshaw (10 February 2011). "Paul – review". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2011/feb/10/paul-review. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- ^ John Walsh (11 February 2011). "Paul (15)". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/reviews/paul-15-2210790.html. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
Liberalism (from the Latin liberalis, "of freedom") is the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but most liberals support such fundamental ideas as constitutions, liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights, capitalism, free trade, and the freedom of religion. These ideas are widely accepted, even by political groups that do not openly profess a liberal ideological orientation. Liberalism encompasses several intellectual trends and traditions, but the dominant variants are classical liberalism, which became popular in the eighteenth century, and social liberalism, which became popular in the twentieth century.
Liberalism first became a powerful force in the Age of Enlightenment, rejecting several foundational assumptions that dominated most earlier theories of government, such as hereditary status, established religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings. The early liberal thinker John Locke, who is often credited for the creation of liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition, employed the concept of natural rights and the social contract to argue that the rule of law should replace absolutism in government, that rulers were subject to the consent of the governed, and that private individuals had a fundamental right to life, liberty, and property.
The revolutionaries in the American Revolution and the French Revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of tyrannical rule. The nineteenth century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, Latin America, and North America. Liberal ideas spread even further in the twentieth century, when liberal democracies triumphed in two world wars and survived major ideological challenges from fascism and communism. Conservatism, fundamentalism, and military dictatorship remain powerful opponents of liberalism. Today, liberals are organized politically on all major continents. They have played a decisive role in the growth of republics, the spread of civil rights and civil liberties, the establishment of the modern welfare state, the institution of religious toleration and religious freedom, and the development of globalization. Political scientist Alan Wolfe wrote, "liberalism is the answer for which modernity is the question".
Etymology and definition
Words such as liberal, liberty, libertarian, and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts. The word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations. Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530, and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries.
In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath...confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word liberalism appeared in English. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal started to be used as a politicized term for parties and movements all over the world.
The history of liberalism spans the better part of the last four centuries, beginning in the English Civil War and continuing after the end of the Cold War. Liberalism started as a major doctrine and intellectual endeavour in response to the religious wars gripping Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, although the historical context for the ascendancy of liberalism goes back to the Middle Ages. The first notable incarnation of liberal unrest came with the American Revolution, and liberalism fully exploded as a comprehensive movement against the old order during the French Revolution, which set the pace for the future development of human history.
Classical liberals, who broadly emphasized the importance of free markets and civil liberties, dominated liberal history for a century after the French Revolution. The onset of the First World War and the Great Depression, however, accelerated the trends begun in late 19th century Britain towards a new liberalism that emphasized a greater role for the state in ameliorating devastating social conditions. By the beginning of the 21st century, liberal democracies and their fundamental characteristics—support for constitutions, civil rights and individual liberties, pluralistic society, and the welfare state—were widespread in most regions around the world.
Inception to revolution
The emergence of the Renaissance in the 15th century helped to weaken unquestioning submission to the institutions of the Middle Ages by reinvigorating interest in science and in the classical world. In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation developed from sentiments that viewed the Catholic Church as an oppressive ruling order too involved in the feudal and baronial structure of European society. The Church launched a Counter Reformation to contain these bubbling sentiments, but the effort unraveled in the Thirty Years War of the 17th century. In England, a civil war led to the execution of King Charles I in 1649. Parliament ultimately succeeded—with the Glorious Revolution of 1688—in establishing a limited and constitutional monarchy. The main facets of early liberal ideology emerged from these events, and historians Colton and Palmer characterize the period in the following light:
|“||The unique thing about England was that Parliament, in defeating the king, arrived at a workable form of government. Government remained strong but came under parliamentary control. This determined the character of modern England and launched into the history of Europe and of the world the great movement of liberalism.||”|
The early messenger for that movement was the English philosopher John Locke, frequently identified as the Father of Liberalism, whose Two Treatises (1690) established the liberal idea that government acquires consent to rule from the governed, not from supernatural authorities. The intellectual journey of liberalism continued beyond Locke with the Enlightenment, a period of profound intellectual vitality that questioned old traditions and influenced several monarchies throughout the 18th century. The ideas circulating in the Enlightenment had a powerful impact in North America and in France.
The American colonies had been loyal British subjects for decades, but they declared independence from rule under the monarchy in 1776 as a result of their dissatisfaction with lack of representation in the governing parliament overseas, which manifested itself most directly and dramatically through taxation policies that colonists considered a violation of their constitutionally guaranteed rights as Englishmen. The American Revolution was primarily a civil and political matter at first, but escalated to military engagements in 1775 that were largely complete by 1781. After the war, the new nation held a Constitutional Convention in 1787 to resolve the problems stemming from the first attempt at a confederated national government under the Articles of Confederation. The resulting Constitution of the United States settled on a republic with a federal structure. The United States Bill of Rights quickly followed in 1789, which guaranteed certain natural rights fundamental to liberal ideals. The American Revolution predicated a series of drastic socio-political changes across nations and continents, collectively referred to as the "Atlantic Revolutions", of which the most famous is probably the French Revolution.
Three years into the French Revolution, German writer Johann von Goethe reportedly told the defeated Prussian soldiers after the Battle of Valmy that "from this place and from this time forth commences a new era in world history, and you can all say that you were present at its birth". Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, and the onset of the Revolution in 1789 is considered by some to mark the end of the early modern period.
The French Revolution is often seen as marking the "dawn of the modern era," and its convulsions are widely associated with "the triumph of liberalism". For liberals, the Revolution was their defining moment, and later liberals approved of the French Revolution almost entirely—"not only its results but the act itself," as two historians noted. The French Revolution began in May 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General. The first year of the Revolution witnessed, among other major events, the Storming of the Bastille in July and the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August.
The next few years were dominated by tensions between various liberal assemblies and a conservative monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. A republic was proclaimed in September 1792. External conflict and internal squabbling significantly radicalized the Revolution, culminating in the brutal Reign of Terror. After the fall of Robespierre and the Jacobins, the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795 and held power until 1799, when it was replaced by the Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte.
Napoleon ruled as First Consul for about five years, centralizing power and streamlining the bureaucracy along the way. The Napoleonic Wars, pitting the heirs of a revolutionary state against the old monarchies of Europe, started in 1805 and lasted for a decade. Along with their boots and Charleville muskets, French soldiers brought to the rest of the European continent the liquidation of the feudal system, the liberalization of property laws, the end of seigneurial dues, the abolition of guilds, the legalization of divorce, the disintegration of Jewish ghettos, the collapse of the Inquisition, the permanent destruction of the Holy Roman Empire, the elimination of church courts and religious authority, the establishment of the metric system, and equality under the law for all men. Napoleon wrote that "the peoples of Germany, as of France, Italy and Spain, want equality and liberal ideas," with some historians suggesting that he may have been the first person ever to use the word liberal in a political sense. He also governed through a method that one historian described as "civilian dictatorship," which "drew its legitimacy from direct consultation with the people, in the form of a plebiscite". Napoleon did not always live up the liberal ideals he espoused, however. His most lasting achievement, the Civil Code, served as "an object of emulation all over the globe," but it also perpetuated further discrimination against women under the banner of the "natural order". The First Empire eventually collapsed in 1815, but this period of chaos and revolution introduced the world to a new movement and ideology that would soon crisscross the globe.
Children of revolution
Liberals in the 19th century wanted to develop a world free from government intervention, or at least free from too much government intervention. They championed the ideal of negative liberty, which constitutes the absence of coercion and the absence of external constraints. They believed governments were cumbersome burdens and they wanted governments to stay out of the lives of individuals. Liberals simultaneously pushed for the expansion of civil rights and for the expansion of free markets and free trade. The latter kind of economic thinking had been formalized by Adam Smith in his monumental Wealth of Nations (1776), which revolutionized the field of economics and established the "invisible hand" of the free market as a self-regulating mechanism that did not depend on external interference. Sheltered by liberalism, the laissez-faire economic world of the 19th century emerged with full tenacity, particularly in the United States and in the United Kingdom.
Politically, liberals saw the 19th century as a gateway to achieving the promises of 1789. In Spain, the Liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution for decades—overthrowing the monarchy in 1820 as part of the Trienio Liberal and defeating the conservative Carlists in the 1830s. In France, the July Revolution of 1830, orchestrated by liberal politicians and journalists, removed the Bourbon monarchy and inspired similar uprisings elsewhere in Europe.
Frustration with the pace of political progress, however, sparked even more gigantic revolutions in 1848. Revolutions spread throughout the Austrian Empire, the German states, and the Italian states. Governments fell rapidly. Liberal nationalists demanded written constitutions, representative assemblies, greater suffrage rights, and freedom of the press. A second republic was proclaimed in France. Serfdom was abolished in Prussia, Galicia, Bohemia, and Hungary. Metternich shocked Europe when he resigned and fled to Britain in panic and disguise.
Eventually, however, the success of the revolutionaries petered out. Without French help, the Italians were easily defeated by the Austrians. Austria also managed to contain the bubbling nationalist sentiments in Germany and Hungary, helped along by the failure of the Frankfurt Assembly to unify the German states into a single nation. Under abler leadership, however, the Italians and the Germans wound up realizing their dreams for independence. The Sardinian Prime Minister, Camillo di Cavour, was a shrewd liberal who understood that the only effective way for the Italians to gain independence was if the French were on their side. Napoleon III agreed to Cavour's request for assistance and France defeated Austria in the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, setting the stage for Italian independence. German unification transpired under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, who decimated the enemies of Prussia in war after war, finally triumphing against France in 1871 and proclaiming the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, ending another saga in the drive for nationalization. The French proclaimed a third republic after their loss in the war, and the rest of French history transpired under republican eyes.
Just a few decades after the French Revolution, liberalism went global. The liberal and conservative struggles in Spain also replicated themselves in Latin American countries like Mexico and Ecuador. From 1857 to 1861, Mexico was gripped in the bloody War of Reform, a massive internal and ideological confrontation between the liberals and the conservatives. The liberal triumph there parallels with the situation in Ecuador. Similar to other nations throughout the region at the time, Ecuador was steeped in turmoil, with the people divided between rival liberal and conservative camps. From these conflicts, García Moreno established a conservative government was eventually overthrown in the Liberal Revolution of 1895. The Radical Liberals who toppled the conservatives were led by Eloy Alfaro, a firebrand who implemented a variety of sociopolitical reforms, including the separation of church and state, the legalization of divorce, and the establishment of public schools.
Although liberals were active throughout the world in the 19th century, it was in Britain that the future character of liberalism would take shape. The liberal sentiments unleashed after the revolutionary era of the previous century ultimately coalesced into the Liberal Party, formed in 1859 from various Radical and Whig elements. The Liberals produced one of the most influential British prime ministers—William Ewart Gladstone, who was also known as the Grand Old Man. Under Gladstone, the Liberals reformed education, disestablished the Church of Ireland (with the Irish Church Act 1869), and introduced the secret ballot for local and parliamentary elections. Following Gladstone, and after a period of Conservative domination, the Liberals returned with full strength in the general election of 1906, aided by working class voters worried about food prices. After that historic victory, the Liberal Party shifted from its classical liberalism and laid the groundwork for the future British welfare state, establishing various forms of health insurance, unemployment insurance, and pensions for elderly workers. This new kind of liberalism would sweep over much of the world in the 20th century.
Conflict and renewal
The 20th century started perilously for liberalism. The First World War proved a major challenge for liberal democracies, although they ultimately defeated the dictatorial states of the Central Powers. The war precipitated the collapse of older forms of government, including empires and dynastic states. The number of republics in Europe reached 13 by the end of the war, as compared with only three at the start of the war in 1914. This phenomenon became readily apparent in Russia. Before the war, the Russian monarchy was reeling from losses to Japan and political struggles with the Kadets, a powerful liberal bloc in the Duma. Facing huge shortages in basic necessities along with widespread riots in early 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated in March, ending three centuries of Romanov rule and allowing liberals to declare a republic. Under the uncertain leadership of Alexander Kerensky, however, the Provisional Government mismanaged Russia's continuing involvement in the war, prompting angry reactions from the Petrograd workers, who drifted further and further to the left. The Bolsheviks, a communist group led by Vladimir Lenin, seized the political opportunity from this confusion and launched a second revolution in Russia during the same year. The communist victory presented a major challenge for liberalism because it precipitated a rise in totalitarian regimes, but the economic problems that rocked the Western world in the 1930s proved even more devastating.
The Great Depression fundamentally changed the liberal world. There was an inkling of a new liberalism during the First World War, but modern liberalism fully hatched in the 1930s as a response to the Depression, which inspired John Maynard Keynes to revolutionize the field of economics. Classical liberals, such as economist Ludwig von Mises, posited that completely free markets were the optimal economic units capable of effectively allocating resources—that over time, in other words, they would produce full employment and economic security. Keynes spearheaded a broad assault on classical economics and its followers, arguing that totally free markets were not ideal, and that hard economic times required intervention and investment from the state. Where the market failed to properly allocate resources, for example, the government was required to stimulate the economy until private funds could start flowing again—a "prime the pump" kind of strategy designed to boost industrial production.
The social liberal program launched by President Roosevelt in the United States, the New Deal, proved very popular with the American public. In 1933, when Roosevelt came into office, the unemployment rate stood at roughly 25 percent. The size of the economy, measured by the gross national product, had fallen to half the value it had in early 1929. The electoral victories of Roosevelt and the Democrats precipitated a deluge of deficit spending and public works programs. Despite this, by 1935 the level of unemployment had only fallen to around 20 percent. Additional state spending and the gigantic public works program sparked by the Second World War eventually pulled the United States out of the Great Depression. From 1940 to 1941, government spending increased by 59 percent, the gross domestic product skyrocketed 17 percent, and unemployment fell below 10 percent for the first time since 1929. By 1945, after vast government spending, public debt stood at a staggering 120 percent of GNP, but unemployment had been effectively eliminated. Most nations that emerged from the Great Depression did so with deficit spending and strong intervention from the state.
The economic woes of the period prompted widespread unrest in the European political world, leading to the rise of fascism as an ideology and a movement that heavily criticized liberalism. Broadly speaking, fascist ideology emphasized elite rule and absolute leadership, a rejection of equality, the imposition of patriarchal society, a stern commitment to war as an instrument of natural behavior, and the elimination of supposedly inferior or subhuman groups from the structure of the nation. The fascist and nationalist grievances of the 1930s eventually culminated in the Second World War, the deadliest conflict in human history. The Allies prevailed in the war by 1945, and their victory set the stage for the Cold War between communist states and liberal democracies. The Cold War featured extensive ideological competition and several proxy wars. While communist states and liberal democracies competed against one another, an economic crisis in the 1970s inspired a temporary move away from Keynesian economics across many Western governments. This classical liberal renewal, known as neoliberalism, lasted through the 1980s and the 1990s, bringing about economic privatization of previously state-owned industries. However, recent economic troubles have prompted a resurgence in Keynesian economic thought. Meanwhile, nearing the end of the 20th century, communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed precipitously, leaving liberal democracies as the only major forms of government. At the beginning of the Second World War, the number of democracies around the world was about the same as it had been forty years before. After 1945, liberal democracies spread very quickly. Even as late as 1974, roughly 75 percent of all nations were considered dictatorial, but now more than half of all countries are democracies. However, liberal democracies still confront several challenges, including the proliferation of terrorism and the growth of religious fundamentalism. The rise of China is also challenging Western liberalism with a combination of authoritarian government and capitalism.
Liberalism—both as a political current and an intellectual tradition—is mostly a modern phenomenon that started in the 17th century, although some liberal philosophical ideas had precursors in classical antiquity. The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius praised "the idea of a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed". Scholars have also recognized a number of principles familiar to contemporary liberals in the works of several Sophists and in the Funeral Oration by Pericles. Liberal philosophy symbolizes an extensive intellectual tradition that has examined and popularized some of the most important and controversial principles of the modern world. Its immense scholarly and academic output has been characterized as containing "richness and diversity," but that diversity often has meant that liberalism comes in different formulations and presents a challenge to anyone looking for a clear definition.
Though all liberal doctrines possess a common heritage, scholars frequently assume that those doctrines contain "separate and often contradictory streams of thought". The objectives of liberal theorists and philosophers have differed across various times, cultures, and continents. The diversity of liberalism can be gleaned from the numerous adjectives that liberal thinkers and movements have attached to the very term liberalism, including classical, egalitarian, economic, social, welfare-state, ethical, humanist, deontological, perfectionist, democratic, and institutional, to name a few. Despite these variations, liberal thought does exhibit a few definite and fundamental conceptions. At its very root, liberalism is a philosophy about the meaning of humanity and society. Political philosopher John Gray identified the common strands in liberal thought as being individualist, egalitarian, meliorist, and universalist. The individualist element avers the ethical primacy of the human being against the pressures of social collectivism, the egalitarian element assigns the same moral worth and status to all individuals, the meliorist element asserts that successive generations can improve their sociopolitical arrangements, and the universalist element affirms the moral unity of the human species and marginalizes local cultural differences. The meliorist element has been the subject of much controversy, defended by thinkers such as Immanuel Kant, who believed in human progress, while suffering from attacks by thinkers such as Rousseau, who believed that human attempts to improve themselves through social cooperation would fail. Describing the liberal temperament, Gray claimed that it "has been inspired by skepticism and by a fideistic certainty of divine revelation ... it has exalted the power of reason even as, in other contexts, it has sought to humble reason's claims". The liberal philosophical tradition has searched for validation and justification through several intellectual projects. The moral and political suppositions of liberalism have been based on traditions such as natural rights and utilitarian theory, although sometimes liberals even requested support from scientific and religious circles. Through all these strands and traditions, scholars have identified the following major common facets of liberal thought: believing in equality and individual liberty, supporting private property and individual rights, supporting the idea of limited constitutional government, and recognizing the importance of related values such as pluralism, toleration, autonomy, and consent.
Liberals accept that war is sometimes necessary, but in contrast to neoconservatives, liberals believe that applying unilateral force is wrong, and will only initiate a cycle of violence that will be impossible to stop.
Classical and modern
Early liberals, including Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Baruch Spinoza, attempted to determine the purpose of government in a liberal society. To these liberals, securing the most essential amenities of life—liberty and private property among them—required the formation of a "sovereign" authority with universal jurisdiction. In a natural state of affairs, liberals argued, humans were driven by the instincts of survival and self-preservation, and the only way to escape from such a dangerous existence was to form a common and supreme power capable of arbitrating between competing human desires. This power could be formed in the framework of a civil society that allows individuals to make a voluntary social contract with the sovereign authority, transferring their natural rights to that authority in return for the protection of life, liberty, and property. These early liberals often disagreed in their opinion of the most appropriate form of government, but they all shared the belief that liberty was natural and that its restriction needed strong justification. Liberals generally believed in limited government, although several liberal philosophers decried government outright, with Thomas Paine writing that "government even in its best state is a necessary evil". As part of the project to limit the powers of government, various liberal theorists—such as James Madison and the Baron de Montesquieu—conceived the notion of separation of powers, a system designed to equally distribute governmental authority among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Governments had to realize, liberals maintained, that poor and improper governance gave the people authority to overthrow the ruling order through any and all possible means—even through outright violence and revolution, if needed. Contemporary liberals, heavily influenced by social liberalism, have continued to support limited constitutional government while also advocating for state services and provisions to ensure equal rights. Modern liberals claim that formal or official guarantees of individual rights are irrelevant when individuals lack the material means to benefit from those rights, urging a greater role for government in the administration of economic affairs. Early liberals also laid the groundwork for the separation of church and state. As heirs of the Enlightenment, liberals believed that any given social and political order emanated from human interactions, not from divine will. Many liberals were openly hostile to religious belief itself, but most concentrated their opposition to the union of religious and political authority—arguing that faith could prosper on its own, without official sponsorship or administration from the state. Beyond identifying a clear role for government in modern society, liberals also have obsessed over the meaning and nature of the most important principle in liberal philosophy: liberty. From the 17th century until the 19th century, liberals—from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill—conceptualized liberty as the absence of interference from government and from other individuals, claiming that all people should have the freedom to develop their own unique abilities and capacities without being sabotaged by others. Mill's On Liberty (1859), one of the classic texts in liberal philosophy, proclaimed that "the only freedom which deserves the name, is that of pursuing our own good in our own way". Support for laissez-faire capitalism is often associated with this principle, with Friedrich Hayek arguing in The Road to Serfdom (1944) that reliance on free markets would preclude totalitarian control by the state. Beginning in the late 19th century, however, a new conception of liberty entered the liberal intellectual arena. This new kind of liberty became known as positive liberty to distinguish it from the prior negative version, and it was first developed by British philosopher Thomas Hill Green. Green rejected the idea that humans were driven solely by self-interest, emphasizing instead the complex circumstances that are involved in the evolution of our moral character. In a very profound step for the future of modern liberalism, he also tasked social and political institutions with the enhancement of individual freedom and identity. Foreshadowing the new liberty as the freedom to act rather than to avoid suffering from the acts of others, Green wrote the following:
If it were ever reasonable to wish that the usage of words had been other than it has been...one might be inclined to wish that the term 'freedom' had been confined to the...power to do what one wills.
Early liberals, including Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Baruch Spinoza, attempted to determine the purpose of government in a liberal society. To these liberals, securing the most essential amenities of life—liberty and private property among them—required the formation of a "sovereign" authority with universal jurisdiction. In a natural state of affairs, liberals argued, humans were driven by the instincts of survival and self-preservation, and the only way to escape from such a dangerous existence was to form a common and supreme power capable of arbitrating between competing human desires. This power could be formed in the framework of a civil society that allows individuals to make a voluntary social contract with the sovereign authority, transferring their natural rights to that authority in return for the protection of life, liberty, and property. These early liberals often disagreed in their opinion of the most appropriate form of government, but they all shared the belief that liberty was natural and that its restriction needed strong justification. Liberals generally believed in limited government, although several liberal philosophers decried government outright, with Thomas Paine writing that "government even in its best state is a necessary evil".
As part of the project to limit the powers of government, various liberal theorists—such as James Madison and the Baron de Montesquieu—conceived the notion of separation of powers, a system designed to equally distribute governmental authority among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Governments had to realize, liberals maintained, that poor and improper governance gave the people authority to overthrow the ruling order through any and all possible means—even through outright violence and revolution, if needed. Contemporary liberals, heavily influenced by social liberalism, have continued to support limited constitutional government while also advocating for state services and provisions to ensure equal rights. Modern liberals claim that formal or official guarantees of individual rights are irrelevant when individuals lack the material means to benefit from those rights, urging a greater role for government in the administration of economic affairs. Early liberals also laid the groundwork for the separation of church and state. As heirs of the Enlightenment, liberals believed that any given social and political order emanated from human interactions, not from divine will. Many liberals were openly hostile to religious belief itself, but most concentrated their opposition to the union of religious and political authority—arguing that faith could prosper on its own, without official sponsorship or administration from the state.
Beyond identifying a clear role for government in modern society, liberals also have obsessed over the meaning and nature of the most important principle in liberal philosophy: liberty. From the 17th century until the 19th century, liberals—from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill—conceptualized liberty as the absence of interference from government and from other individuals, claiming that all people should have the freedom to develop their own unique abilities and capacities without being sabotaged by others. Mill's On Liberty (1859), one of the classic texts in liberal philosophy, proclaimed that "the only freedom which deserves the name, is that of pursuing our own good in our own way". Support for laissez-faire capitalism is often associated with this principle, with Friedrich Hayek arguing in The Road to Serfdom (1944) that reliance on free markets would preclude totalitarian control by the state. Beginning in the late 19th century, however, a new conception of liberty entered the liberal intellectual arena. This new kind of liberty became known as positive liberty to distinguish it from the prior negative version, and it was first developed by British philosopher Thomas Hill Green. Green rejected the idea that humans were driven solely by self-interest, emphasizing instead the complex circumstances that are involved in the evolution of our moral character. In a very profound step for the future of modern liberalism, he also tasked social and political institutions with the enhancement of individual freedom and identity. Foreshadowing the new liberty as the freedom to act rather than to avoid suffering from the acts of others, Green wrote the following:
Rather than previous liberal conceptions viewing society as populated by selfish individuals, Green viewed society as an organic whole in which all individuals have a duty to promote the common good. His ideas spread rapidly and were developed by other thinkers such as L. T. Hobhouse and John Hobson. In a few short years, this New Liberalism had become the essential social and political program of the Liberal Party in Britain, and it would encircle much of the world in the 20th century. In addition to examining negative and positive liberty, liberals have tried to understand the proper relationship between liberty and democracy. As they struggled to expand suffrage rights, liberals increasingly understood that people left out of the democratic decision-making process were liable to the tyranny of the majority, a concept explained in Mill's On Liberty and in Democracy in America (1835) by Alexis de Tocqueville. As a response, liberals began demanding proper safeguards to thwart majorities in their attempts at suppressing the rights of minorities.
Besides liberty, liberals have developed several other principles important to the construction of their philosophical structure, such as equality, pluralism, and toleration. Highlighting the confusion over the first principle, Voltaire commented that "equality is at once the most natural and at times the most chimeral of things". All forms of liberalism assume, in some basic sense, that individuals are equal. In maintaining that people are naturally equal, liberals assume that they all possess the same right to liberty. In other words, no one is inherently entitled to enjoy the benefits of liberal society more than anyone else, and all people are equal subjects before the law. Beyond this basic conception, liberal theorists diverge on their understanding of equality. American philosopher John Rawls emphasized the need to ensure not only equality under the law, but also the equal distribution of material resources that individuals required to develop their aspirations in life. Libertarian thinker Robert Nozick disagreed with Rawls, championing the former version of Lockean equality instead. To contribute to the development of liberty, liberals also have promoted concepts like pluralism and toleration. By pluralism, liberals refer to the proliferation of opinions and beliefs that characterize a stable social order. Unlike many of their competitors and predecessors, liberals do not seek conformity and homogeneity in the way that people think; in fact, their efforts have been geared towards establishing a governing framework that harmonizes and minimizes conflicting views, but still allows those views to exist and flourish. For liberal philosophy, pluralism leads easily to toleration. Since individuals will hold diverging viewpoints, liberals argue, they ought to uphold and respect the right of one another to disagree. From the liberal perspective, toleration was initially connected to religious toleration, with Spinoza condemning "the stupidity of religious persecution and ideological wars". Toleration also played a central role in the ideas of Kant and John Stuart Mill. Both thinkers believed that society will contain different conceptions of a good ethical life and that people should be allowed to make their own choices without interference from the state or other individuals.
Criticism and support
Liberalism has drawn both criticism and support in its history from various ideological groups. For example, some scholars suggest that liberalism gave rise to feminism, although others maintain that liberal democracy is inadequate for the realization of feminist objectives. Liberal feminism, the dominant tradition in feminist history, hopes to eradicate all barriers to gender equality—claiming that the continued existence of such barriers eviscerates the individual rights and freedoms ostensibly guaranteed by a liberal social order. British philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft is widely regarded as the pioneer of liberal feminism, with A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) expanding the boundaries of liberalism to include women in the political structure of liberal society. Less friendly to the goals of liberalism has been conservatism. Like liberalism, conservatism is complex and amorphous, laying claims to several intellectual traditions over the last three centuries. Edmund Burke, considered by some to be the first major proponent of modern conservative thought, offered a blistering critique of the French Revolution by assailing the liberal pretensions to the power of rationality and to the natural equality of all humans. Conservatives have also attacked what they perceive to be the reckless liberal pursuit of progress and material gains, arguing that such preoccupations undermine traditional social values rooted in community and continuity. However, a few variations of conservatism, like liberal conservativism, expound some of the same ideas and principles championed by classical liberalism, including "small government and thriving capitalism".
Even more uncertain is the relationship between liberalism and socialism. Socialism began as a concrete ideology in the 19th century with the writings of Karl Marx, and it too—as with liberalism and conservatism—fractured into several major movements in the decades after its founding. Marx rejected the foundational aspects of liberal theory, hoping to destroy the liberal distinction between society and the individual while fusing the two into a collective whole designed to overthrow the developing capitalist order of the 19th century. After Marx, the most prominent branch of socialism eventually became social democracy, which can be broadly defined as a project that aims to correct what it regards as the intrinsic defects of capitalism by reducing the inequalities that exist within an economic system. Several commentators have noted strong similarities between social liberalism and social democracy, with one political scientist even calling American liberalism "bootleg social democracy" due to the absence of a significant social democratic tradition in the United States that liberals have tried to rectify. Another movement associated with modern democracy, Christian democracy, hopes to spread Catholic social ideas and has gained a large following in some European nations. The early roots of Christian democracy developed as a reaction against the industrialization and urbanization associated with laissez-faire liberalism in the 19th century. Despite these complex relationships, some scholars have argued that liberalism actually "rejects ideological thinking" altogether, largely because such thinking could lead to unrealistic expectations for human society.
Liberalism is frequently cited as the dominant ideology of modern times. Politically, liberals have organized extensively throughout the world. Liberal parties, think tanks, and other institutions are common in many nations, although they advocate for different causes based on their ideological orientation. Liberal parties can be center-left, centrist, or center-right depending on their location.
They can further be divided based on their adherence to social liberalism or classical liberalism, although all liberal parties and individuals share basic similarities, including the support for civil rights and democratic institutions. On a global level, liberals are united in the Liberal International, which contains over 100 influential liberal parties and organizations from across the ideological spectrum.
Some parties in the LI are among the most famous in the world, such as the Liberal Party of Canada, while others are among the smallest, such as the Liberal Party of Gibraltar. Regionally, liberals are organized through various institutions depending on the prevailing geopolitical context. In the European Parliament, for example, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe is the predominant group that represents the interest of European liberals.
In Europe, liberalism has a long tradition dating back to 17th century. Scholars often split those traditions into English and French versions, with the former version of liberalism emphasizing the expansion of democratic values and constitutional reform and the latter rejecting authoritarian political and economic structures, as well as being involved with nation-building. The continental French version was deeply divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalization of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education, and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. A prominent example of these divisions is the German Free Democratic Party, which was historically divided between national liberal and social liberal factions.
Before the First World War, liberal parties dominated the European political scene, but they were gradually displaced by socialists and social democrats in the early 20th century. The fortunes of liberal parties since World War II have been mixed, with some gaining strength while others suffered from continuous declines. The fall of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia at the end of the 20th century, however, allowed the formation of many liberal parties throughout Eastern Europe. These parties developed varying ideological characters. Some, such as the Slovenian Liberal Democrats or the Lithuanian Social Liberals, have been characterized as center-left. Others, such as the Romanian National Liberal Party, have been classified as center-right.
In Western Europe, some liberal parties have undergone renewal and transformation, coming back to the political limelight after historic disappointments. One of the most notable examples features the Liberal Democrats in Britain. The Liberal Democrats are the heirs of the once-mighty Liberal Party, which suffered a huge erosion of support to the Labour Party in the early 20th century. After nearly vanishing from the British political scene altogether, the Liberals eventually united with the Social Democratic Party, a Labour splinter group, in 1988 to form the current Liberal Democrats.
The Liberal Democrats have earned significant popular support in the general election of 2005 and in local council elections, marking the first time in decades that a British party with a liberal ideology has achieved such electoral success. Following the general election of 2010, the Liberal Democrats formed a coalition government with the Conservatives resulting in party leader Nick Clegg becoming the Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Both in Britain and elsewhere in Western Europe, liberal parties have often cooperated with socialist and social democratic parties, as evidenced by the Purple Coalition in the Netherlands during the late 1990s and into the 21st century. The Purple Coalition, one of the most consequential in Dutch history, brought together the progressive left-liberal D66, the market liberal and center-right VVD, and the socialist Labour Party—an unusual combination that ultimately legalized same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and prostitution while also instituting a non-enforcement policy on marijuana.
During an underwater cave exploration in Papua New Guinea, five people are trapped when a cyclone starts flooding the cave. With the water going up and the air running out, their only hope of survival is to travel through the unexplored underwater caves following the course of the river that leads into the ocean.
Upon reaching the cave it is made known that Frank McGuire (Richard Roxburgh), Josh's father and a master diver, has already set up a forward base camp deep inside the cave. The team has been exploring the cave system for months, and have set up an excellent communication network that allows communication with the camp from above. While Victoria and Josh rappel down the cave, Hurley chooses to dive and parachute into it, reaching the base camp before Josh and Victoria.
While the guests get comfortable, Frank and Judes decide to explore an unexplored section of the cave known as Devil's Restriction. Squeezing through a narrow passage they reach a giant cavern with huge ceilings, but while they are returning, Judes' hose snaps. With no backup tank, Frank offers Judes his full face diving mask to buddy breathe. After exchanging the mask twice, Judes begins to panic and refuses to let go of Frank's hose. Frank reluctantly pushes her away so that he can breathe, and Judes dies in front of his eyes. The entire action is captured and witnessed by the members of the forward base through the rover trailing the divers.
Josh accuses Frank of murdering Judes, while the others try to convince him that Frank took heroic risks in attempting to help her. Frank tells Josh that Judes knew the risks, and that Josh was responsible in part for the accident since he failed to procure the backup tanks. Meanwhile, a fierce storm develops on the surface, and attempts by the surface team to warn the divers fail. Unaware of the storm, some of the divers decide to return to the surface where they encounter water gushing in. Josh and Luko (Cramer Cain) refuse to escape without warning the dive team.
During the escape Luko is badly injured and Frank drowns him in a mercy killing. Frank asks Victoria to use Judes' suit but she refuses. As a result, later her body becomes too cold. Later George, Frank's buddy, suffers from decompression sickness and stays behind so that he will not slow down the group. Victoria dies crossing a gorge in the cave. Her body had already been cold and she found it difficult to grasp the rope. When Carl shines a torch in her face to see if she is fine, she loses her foothold and trips. Her hair becomes trapped in the equipment. Despite Carl's warnings, she uses her knife, unknowingly cuts the rope and falls into the churning waters below. The divers lose all but one rebreather in the accident. The teams regroup and decide to rest. Frank explains that he intends to use the rebreather to dive and find a way to come back for them.
Carl, maddened by grief, suddenly dives in with the last tank and Frank loses him in the cave. Josh happens to find bat droppings and infers that there might be a way out, because bats only use passages (and entrances) that are big enough for humans. The two make their way out and find an opening up to the surface along with a Japanese tank from World War II that crashed through. They both decide to find another way through the cave rather than wait to be rescued. They find a crazed Carl who attacks Frank and mortally injures him by impaling him on some minor stalagmites before diving back into the cave without a tank in hope of finding a way out.
Josh is forced to mercy kill his father in the same manner as Frank mercy killed Luko. Josh dives and continues to swim on a single tank. As he swims, he sees Carl who has died due to lack of oxygen. When his light dies, he uses the light in the boar tooth his father gave him. Finally the tank runs out of air and Josh, remembering his father's words, uses air bubbles trapped on the cave ceiling and continues ahead. Finally exhausted and on the verge of giving up, Josh sees sunlight ahead and breaks the surface, emerging in the Solomon Sea and swims to a nearby beach.
- Richard Roxburgh as Frank
- Ioan Gruffudd as Carl
- Rhys Wakefield as Josh
- Alice Parkinson as Victoria
- Dan Wyllie as George
- Christopher Baker as J.D.
- Nicole Downs as Liz
- Allison Cratchley as Judes
- Cramer Cain as Luko
- Andrew Hansen as Dex
- John Garvin as Jim Sergeant
Sanctum was inspired by the film's co-writer Andrew Wight's near-death experience of leading a diving expedition miles into a system of underwater caves, then having to find a way out after a freak storm collapsed the entrance. James Cameron executive produced the 3-D drama.
Shot on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia, Sanctum employs 3D photography techniques Cameron developed to film Avatar. All of the underwater sequences took place in a large water tank at the Village Roadshow Studios in Queensland. Real caves were also filmed in South Australia's cave-diving region around Mount Gambier.
The movie received mixed reviews. On Rotten Tomatoes it received a score of 31% based on critics' reviews with the consensus stating that "Sanctum is beautifully photographed, and it makes better use of 3-D technology than most, but that doesn't make up for its ham-handed script and lifeless cast." In Australia, Jim Schembri gave it 3 1/2 stars whilst the UK's Daily Express opined 3/5
- ^ a b Kaufman, Amy; Fritz, Ben (6 February 2011). "Box office: 'Roommate' beats 'Sanctum' on slow Super Bowl weekend [Updated"]. Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/02/box-office-roommate-beats-sanctum-on-slow-super-bowl-weekend.html. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- ^ a b "Sanctum (2011)". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=sanctum.htm. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- ^ a b "Sanctum (2011)- About the Production". Visual Hollywood. http://www.visualhollywood.com/movies_2011/sanctum/about.php. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- ^ Fritz, Ben; Kaufman, Amy (3 February 2011). "Movie Projector: 'The Roommate' and 'Sanctum' won't score on Super Bowl weekend". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/02/movie-projector-the-roommate-and-sanctum-wont-score-on-superbowl-weekend.html. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- ^ http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/la-et-box-office-20110207,0,5392452.story
- ^ http://blog.zap2it.com/pop2it/2011/02/box-office-the-roommate-easily-wins-a-quiet-weekend.html
- ^ Sanctum at Rotten Tomatoes
- ^ http://www.theage.com.au/entertainment/movies/sanctum-3d-20110202-1ad7u.html Retrieved 27 February 2011
- ^ http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/226923/Sanctum-film-reviewSanctum-film-reviewSanctum-film-review Retrieved 27 February 2011
The Roommate is a 2011 thriller film directed by Christian E. Christiansen and starring Minka Kelly, Leighton Meester, Danneel Harris, Cam Gigandet, and Alyson Michalka. It was theatrically released on February 4, 2011.
The film begins with Sara Matthews (Minka Kelly) going to college and finding her room. While she is there, she sees that the bed is empty. Also, she meets two other girls, Tracy Morgan (Alyson Michalka) and Tracy's roommate, and she is invited to join the two at a frat party. While she is there she meets a guy in the band, Stephen Morterelli (Cam Gigandet), and they flirt with each other. During the party, Sara sees Tracy drunk, dancing, and about to take off her top for frat guys with a camera. Sara consoles her and takes her back to her room.
While going back to her room Sara meets her new roommate, Rebecca Evans (Leighton Meester). The two slowly become friends and Sara introduces Rebecca to her other friends. However, Rebecca's reactions to them seem distant; she is especially cold to Sara's best friend, Irene Crew (Danneel Harris). However, Sara seems to be oblivious to this and becomes closer to Rebecca and seemingly more distant with Tracy, especially when she takes Sara out one night and ditches her. However, the two reconcile and their relations appear to go back to normal. Sara's closeness to Rebecca becomes strained when Rebecca becomes very clingy and obsessive about their friendship. One example of this occurs when Rebecca sits outside of Tracy's door and glares at her. Tracy attempts to warn Sara about Rebecca, but she does not seem to believe her. Rebecca then reveals her true nature by attacking Tracy in the shower and ripping out her belly button ring. She threatens to kill her if she tells anyone and that she is a bad influence on Sara. A fearful Tracy moves to another hall.
During this time Sara and Stephen start to become even closer and Rebecca becomes even more jealous about their friendship. Sara is also having trouble with her ex-boyfriend Jason (Matt Lanter) back at home. During a date, Stephen and Sara decide to have sex. Sara's ex-boyfriend calls her, but she is not present and Rebecca impersonates her over the phone. He invites her over not knowing he is drunk and cannot see very well. Jason lies in bed while Rebecca sits on top of him. She takes a pocket knife from the back of her bra and stabs him in the chest. Rebecca's attempts at keeping Sara in her life become more desperate and the true measure of her insanity is revealed. During Thanksgiving, when Sara wants to leave with Steven, instead of going with Rebecca to her parents, Rebecca violently beats and cuts herself with a box cutter. She then lies to Sara telling her that she was attacked in an alley looking for their lost kitten. Later, Rebecca ties up Sara's friend Irene.
Sara and Stephen fight with Rebecca to save Irene. Rebecca holds a knife against Sara. Sara then takes the knife from her and stabs her in the back saying, "We were never friends", killing her.
- Leighton Meester as Rebecca Evans
- Minka Kelly as Sara Matthews
- Cam Gigandet as Stephen Morterelli
- Danneel Harris as Irene Crew
- Alyson Michalka as Tracy Morgan
- Katerina Graham as Kim Johnson
- Matt Lanter as Jason Tanner
- Ryan Doom as Rick Shaefer
- Elena Franklin as Jessica Smith
- Carrie Finklea as Marina Hudgens
- Billy Zane as Professor Roberts
- Frances Fisher as Rebecca's Mother
- Tomas Arana as Rebecca's Father
- Nina Dobrev as Maria
- Jennifer Cadena as Dorm R.A.
- Lauren Storm as Herself
- Cherilyn Wilson as Landi Rham
- Evan Brown as Band Member
- Johannes Raassina as Band Member
- Cam Brousseau as Band Member Production
The film was shot on location at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. Leighton Meester was originally set to play Sara but was replaced by Minka Kelly, then Meester took the role of Rebecca. Cam Gigandet and Alyson Michalka previously starred alongside each other in another Screen Gems film, Easy A. Nina Dobrev confirmed via Twitter that she filmed a scene, however the scene does not feature her with The Vampire Diaries castmate, Katerina Graham, who also co-stars in the film.Release
Opening in 2,534 theaters, the film grossed $15.6 million its opening weekend to take first place at the box office. CinemaScore polls indicated a B- rating from audiences. Its distributor estimated that females under the age of 21 accounted for two-thirds of its audience.Reception
The Roommate has been universally panned by critics; it is currently rated at 6% on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 47 reviews with a consensus of it being "Devoid of chills, thrills, or even cheap titillation, The Roommate isn't even bad enough to be good." Keith Staskiewicz of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a D, saying it "is really just a far-below-par thriller that desperately wishes it were a different movie -- a longing it shares with the audience." Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave it a half star, stating that "The Roommate - the umpteenth uncredited remake of 1992's Single White Female - sucks bad, real bad" and that "Danish director Christian E. Christiansen has no flair for suspense". Controversy
Some of the promotional posters and displays for the film used as its backdrop the Christy Administration Building from Southwestern College in Winfield, Kansas. The college administration voiced concern that permission to use the photograph of the building was not properly obtained and is currently investigating the legality of its use.
Primary concerns hinge that the image of the college (particularly the image of the building) could be damaged, while other concerns are that the college's primary iconic image is being used for promotion of an unrelated business venture.
After initial success became realized when the film earned $15.6 million in receipts to top the box office during its debut weekend in the United States, concerns continued. By that time, the image of the building had been replaced on the film's offical website and on subsequent promotional material. The photo of the building reportedly was licensed from iStockPhoto based in Calgary, Alberta. As of February 8, 2011, no lawsuits have been filed but discussions have taken place.References
- ^ Fritz, Ben; Kaufman, Amy (February 3, 2011). "Movie Projector: 'The Roommate' and 'Sanctum' won't score on Super Bowl weekend". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/02/movie-projector-the-roommate-and-sanctum-wont-score-on-superbowl-weekend.html. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- ^ a b "The Roommate (2011)". [[[Box Office Mojo]]. Amazon.com. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=roommate10.htm. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
- ^ http://www.onlocationvacations.com/index.php?s=the+roommate
- ^ First Ever Look at Screen Gems' 'The Roommate', Hi-Res 'Priest' Teaser
- ^ "Priest and Roommate Release Date Changes". http://www.dreadcentral.com/news/33912/priest-and-roomate-release-date-changes.
- ^ Sony Screen Gems' Major Date Shifts, 3D Maneuvers
- ^ Kaufman, Amy; Fritz, Ben (February 6, 2011). "Box office: 'Roommate' beats 'Sanctum' on slow Super Bowl weekend [Updated"]. Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2011/02/box-office-roommate-beats-sanctum-on-slow-super-bowl-weekend.html. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-12380374
- ^ The Roommate at Rotten Tomatoes
- ^ Entertainment Weekly - The Roommate Review
- ^ The Roommate Review - Rolling Stone
- ^ Twitchell, Allen (December 3, 2010). "Image of SC building on movie poster". The Winfield Daily Courier. http://www.winfieldcourier.com/articles/2010/12/03/news/news/doc4cf932cdb33af858348853.txt. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- ^ Hawkins, Korie (December 9, 2010). "Christy photo on movie poster causes concern". Southwestern College Student Media. http://scupdate.org/?p=5240. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- ^ Twitchell, Allen (February 8, 2011). "Movie poster image remains a concern for SC administration". The Winfield Daily Courier. http://www.winfieldcourier.com/articles/2011/02/08/news/news/doc4d5183cc7aa41324106218.txt. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
Death Race 2 (formerly Death Race: Frankenstein Lives) is a film directed by Dutch filmmaker Roel Reiné, written by Tony Giglio and Paul W. S. Anderson, and starring Luke Goss, Ving Rhames, Danny Trejo and Sean Bean. Death Race 2 is a prequel to the 2008 film Death Race, which, although marketed as a remake of the 1975 film Death Race 2000 (based on Ib Melchior's short story "The Racer"), has been described as a prequel, making Death Race 2 a prequel to both films.
The film explores the origins of the first "Frankenstein" car driver, Carl "Luke" Lucas (Luke Goss), who died in a race at the beginning of the first film, from Luke's beginning as a bank robber until his death in Death Race.
In 2012, private corporations own and manage the prison systems. Getaway driver Carl "Luke" Lucas (Luke Goss) is arrested after a robbery for his crime boss Markus Kane (Sean Bean) goes wrong. As his accomplices are robbing the bank, two police officers casually enter the building. Luke tells his accomplices to abort, but they refuse; Luke intervenes, resulting in the death of one of the three accomplices. Luke shoots and kills one of the officers and dumps off his accomplices in order to fulfill Markus's wishes. In doing so, Luke is eventually captured by the police following a high-speed chase and sentenced to serve time on Terminal Island.
Terminal Island is a prison under the control of The Weyland Corporation, which hosts Death Match, a televised pay-per-view competition where two dangerous convicts are chosen and then forced to fight to the death or submission. The prisoners are given access to weapons or defense items to use during the fight by stepping on a marked plate in the arena. Luke meets the men who eventually become his pit crew in the Death Race: Lists (Frederick Koehler), who annoys him by over-analyzing everything, Goldberg (Danny Trejo), and Rocco (Joe Vaz). The host of Death Match is September Jones (Lauren Cohan), a former Miss Universe who lost her crown due to allegations of having a sexual relationship with all of its judges. She now works for The Weyland Corporation to create profit from the pay per view subscribers of Death Match. When a convict tries to stab Lists (because of his nature and weakness, as he was convicted only of swindling), Luke takes it upon himself to defend him.
Luke is later approached in the showers by September, who proposes that he fight. When he refuses, she makes sexual advances towards him, which he pretends to go for before refusing. In retaliation, September chooses Lists to fight in a Death Match with the convict who tried to stab him earlier. Luke confronts her while Lists is running for his life during the event, pleading to let him fight in place of Lists. She refuses to help and he jumps over a barbed fence to fight for Lists. He is joined by Katrina Banks (Tanit Phoenix), a woman convict who is serving as a ring girl with other female convicts. She hits the convict with a round number sign made of metal. A riot breaks out during the fight between Luke and the convict because of racial tension, sparked because Luke is white and the other convict is black. The convicts break down the fence to get in, and some of the rapists attack and attempt to rape female convicts. Katrina defends herself and helps other women, who are then evacuated. When the riot control guards come, Luke surrenders. Markus, worried that Luke will trade info on his crimes for immunity, discovers his location at Terminal Island while watching Death Match. Afterward, Luke is well-received when he sees Katrina and inquires about her well-being after the fight.
Markus puts a bounty of $1 million on Luke's head and convinces some of the prisoners to kill him. Meanwhile, September comes up with a plan to boost their profits by converting the Death Match into a "Death Race", where the contestants will have to race over days to win each match. The person who manages to win five such matches will be released from prison. Luke joins the race, during which other prisoners try to kill him to earn Markus's bounty. Luke's car crashes and everybody is led to believe that he is dead. In reality, he survives with extensive scarring to his face. He joins the race as the new character "Frankenstein" with a mask to hide his identity from others, especially September, who is threatening not only his life but Katrina's as well. Meanwhile, Luke's new Triad friends manage to kill Marcus in revenge, and Lists kills Rocco in the shower house for rigging Luke's car. Frankenstein then kills September by running her over with his car during a race, leaving some fates (such as Katrina's) unresolved.
- Luke Goss as Carl "Luke" Lucas/Frankenstein. He is assumed dead after Stage Two of the race, where he becomes Frankenstein to mask his identity to avoid the bounty put out on him by Marcus Kane, his former boss. Goss replaced David Carradine, who portrayed Frankenstein in Death Race 2000 and Death Race (the latter through a cameo voice-over). Lucas' car is driven by Jensen Ames in Death Race.
- Robin Shou as 14K, a tenth-generation Triad member, sent to business school, and holding a degree from MIT. He is the only racer to appear in both films.
- Deobia Oparei as Big Bill, one of Luke's rivals. He is killed by his own navigator for harassing her at the end of Stage Two of the race. It is implied that Machine Gun Joe (Tyrese Gibson's character from the previous film) is part of his crew.
- Hennie Bosman as Xander Grady, a rival that 14K kills in Stage Two of the race. His car is representative version of Riggins's car in Death Race.
- Sean Higgs as Hill Billy, a rival that Luke kills in Stage One of the race. His car is driven by Siad in Death Race.
- Warrick Grier as Calin, who is killed by Big Bill in Stage Two of the race. His car is driven by Carson in Death Race.
- Chase Armitage as Apache, who is killed by Big Bill in Stage Two of the race. His car is driven by Riggins in Death Race.
- Michael Solomon as The Sheik, who is killed by Apache in Stage One of the race. His car is driven by Travis Colt in Death Race.
- Traian Milenov as Scarface, who is killed by Big Bill and Sheik in Stage One of the race. His car is driven by Hector Grimm in Death Race. Other Cast
- Fred Koehler as Lists, one of Luke's pit crew.
- Tanit Phoenix as Katrina Banks, Luke's navigator and love interest.
- Lauren Cohan as September Jones, Death Race's hostess, formerly the hostess of Death Match. She is a former Miss Universe who lost her crown due to allegations of having a sexual relationship with all of its judges.
- Patrick Lyster as Medford Parks, Terminal Island Penitentiary's warden.
- Joe Vaz as Rocco, a member of Luke's pit crew.
- Danny Keogh as Dr. Klein
- Danny Trejo as Goldberg, a member of Luke's pit crew.
- Ving Rhames as Weyland, head of Weyland International.
- Sean Bean as Markus Kane, Luke's former crime boss.
The cars in the film are real vehicles that have been heavily-modified with armor plating, machine guns and defensive weapons.Cars
The cars in the film are real vehicles that have been heavily-modified with armor plating, machine guns and defensive weapons.
- Frankenstein's Monster - A five-speed manual Fifth-generation Ford Mustang armed with dual M134 Miniguns for offense, and a smoke screen, napalm, and oil slick for defense, as well as a 6-inch-thick (150 mm) detachable steel plate on the rear bumper called "The Tombstone."
- Porsche 911 - A five-speed manual vehicle with a stock 2.7L six-cylinder engine, driven by the Chinese convict 14K, enforced with dual World War II German MG-42 belt-fed general purpose machine guns, four hood-mounted missiles, and four missiles on the roof.
- Dodge Ram - Big Bill's five-speed automatic truck with a 5.7L V8 Hemi engine, armed with a cowcatcher, four hood-mounted Browning M1919s, two side-mounted Vulcan cannons, and Russian RPG-7s.
- 1967 Buick Riviera GS (serial # 494877H903903)- Xander Grady's turbo three-speed automatic with a 430C.I. V8 engine. The Riviera is enforced with German MG-34s, Uzis, and PPSH-41 submachine guns.
- BMW E32 - Hill Billy's four-speed automatic with a six-cylinder engine. The BMW is enforced with an M134 and bullet-resistant steel.
- Pontiac Trans Am - Calin's three-speed automatic with a 350HO V8 engine with a M134 aiming backwards for defense, and a .50 caliber turret on top of his car which is operated by his navigator.
- 1972 "Boattail" Buick Riviera - Apache's three-speed automatic with a 430C.I. V8 "Nail Head" engine. The Boattail is enforced with German MG-34s, two Uzis, and two PPSH-41 submachine guns.
- Jaguar XJS - The Sheik's four-speed automatic with a V12 engine. The Jaguar is enforced with bullet-resistant steel and 50-caliber M2 machine guns.
- Chrysler 300 C - Scarface's five-speed automatic with a 345C.I. V8 engine. The Chrysler is enforced with three FN MAG-58s, a missile and oil slick.
- Australian Ford Falcons (EF and EL models) and Ford Crown Victorias - Driven by police. Production
On November 13, 2009, casting began for the prequel. On December 7, 2009, it was announced that Roel Reiné would direct the film. On January 5, 2010, Luke Goss was announced for the leading role as Carl "Luke" Lucas, who becomes "Frankenstein".
- As Markus Kane flips through TV channels in his house, a scene from Death Race 2000 can be seen.
- Lucas' car is driven by Jensen Ames in Death Race.
- 14K is the only racer to appear in both films.
- Big Bill's car is the same driven by Machine Gun Joe in Death Race. It is implied that Machine Gun Joe is on his crew.
- Xander Grady'S car is representative of Riggins's car in Death Race.
- Hill Billy's car is driven by Siad in Death Race.
- Calin's car is driven by Carson in Death Race.
- Apache's car is driven by Riggins in Death Race.
- The Sheik's car is driven by Travis Colt in Death Race.
- Scarface's car is driven by Hector Grimm in Death Race.
- Frankenstein is shown to gain his scars from Death Race. References
- ^ a b Lewinski, John Scott (May 6, 2010). "Six features filmed in South Africa". The Hollywood Reporter (e5 Global Media). http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/world/news/e3if2e371e23945e3cf1eb7ff50c3c13998. Retrieved June 21, 2010. [dead link]
- ^ "Death Race 2″ (Ving Rhames Is Back In Prison Yet Again)
- ^ Paul W.S. Anderson Talks Buck Rogers, Three Musketeers, CastleVania, Death Race 2, Even Resident Evil: Afterlife!
- ^ Death Race 2 Starts Principal Photography
- ^ Death Race 2 Starts Principal Photography
- ^ The Cars of Death Race part 2, IGN (Jan 30, 2008)
- ^ 'Death Race: Frankenstein Lives' Begins Casting
- ^ Director Announced for 'Death Race: Frankenstein Lives'
- ^ a b Mahadeo, Kevin (March 1, 2010). "Sean Bean Joins Luke Goss in Death Race 2: Frankenstein Lives – Filming Began Today". Collider.com. http://www.collider.com/2010/03/01/sean-bean-joins-luke-goss-in-death-race-2-frankenstein-lives-filming-began-today/. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
- ^ "Death Race 2 Trailer". Matt's Movie Reviews. 2010-03-10. http://www.mattsmoviereviews.net/trailers-death-race-2.html.
The Social Network is a 2010 biographical drama film about the founding of the social networking website Facebook and the resulting lawsuits. The film was directed by David Fincher and features an ensemble cast including Jesse Eisenberg, Andrew Garfield, Justin Timberlake, Brenda Song, Armie Hammer, Max Minghella, Rashida Jones, Joseph Mazzello, and Rooney Mara.
Aaron Sorkin adapted his screenplay from Ben Mezrich's 2009 nonfiction book The Accidental Billionaires. Sorkin also makes a cameo appearance as a would-be advertiser. Neither founder Mark Zuckerberg nor any other member of the Facebook team were involved with the project, although Eduardo Saverin was a consultant for Mezrich's story. The film was released in the United States by Columbia Pictures on October 1, 2010 to critical acclaim.
The film won the award for Best Motion Picture – Drama at the 68th Golden Globe Awards on January 16, 2011. The film also won the awards for Best Director, Best Screenplay and Best Original Score, making it the film with the most wins of the night.
In 2003 Erica Albright breaks up with Harvard University student Mark Zuckerberg. Back at his dorm, Mark writes a scathing, crudely demeaning blog entry about her, and in his drunken rage is inspired to create a website that rates the attractiveness of female students when compared to each other. He hacks into the databases of various residence halls, downloads pictures and names of female students and, in a few hours, using an algorithm for ranking chess players supplied by his best friend, Eduardo Saverin, he creates a website called "FaceMash", where male students can choose which of two girls presented at a time is more attractive. Mark receives six months of academic probation after the traffic to the site brings down parts of Harvard's network, and becomes vilified among most of Harvard's female community. However, "FaceMash"'s popularity and its one night creation, while drunk, brings him to the attention of Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, identical twins and members of Harvard's rowing team, and their business partner Divya Narendra. As a result, he gains a job working for the Winklevoss twins as the programmer of their website, Harvard Connection.
Soon afterward, Mark approaches Eduardo and tells him of his idea for what he calls "Thefacebook", an online social networking website exclusive to Harvard University students. He explains this would let people share personal and social information securely. Eduardo agrees to help Mark, providing $1,000 to help start the site. They distribute the link to Eduardo's connections at the Phoenix S-K final club, and it quickly becomes popular throughout the student body. When they learn of Thefacebook, the Winklevoss twins and Narendra believe Zuckerberg had stolen their idea while stalling on their website. Tyler and Divya want to sue Mark for intellectual property theft, but Cameron convinces them they can settle the matter as "Harvard gentlemen" without the courts.
At a visiting lecture by Bill Gates, fellow Harvard University student Christy Lee introduces herself and her best friend Alice Cantwel to Eduardo and Mark. She asks the boys "Facebook us"; their use of this phrase impresses both of them. Christy invites them to a bar where Mark runs into Erica who is not aware of The Facebook because she is not a Harvard University student. Mark decides to expand the site to more schools. As The Facebook grows in popularity, they expand to other schools in the Northeastern United States, while the Winklevoss twins and Narendra become angrier at seeing "their idea" advance without them. Cameron refuses to sue them, instead accusing Mark of violating the Harvard student Code of Conduct. Through their father's connections they arrange a meeting with Harvard President Larry Summers, who is dismissive and sees no potential value in either a disciplinary action or in The facebook website itself.
Through Christy, now Eduardo's girlfriend, Eduardo and Mark arrange a meeting with Napster co-founder Sean Parker. When Christy, Mark, and Eduardo meet Sean, Eduardo becomes skeptical noting Sean's problematic personal and professional history. Christy thinks Eduardo is jealous of Sean, and attempts to calm him to avoid a scene. Sean presents a vision for Facebook similar to Mark's and impresses him. In a parting comment, Sean suggests they drop "The" from Thefacebook.
At Sean's suggestion, Mark moves the company to Palo Alto, while Eduardo remains in New York seeking advertising support. Meanwhile in England, while competing in the Henley Royal Regatta for Harvard, the Winklevoss twins discover Facebook has expanded to a number of universities there. Cameron finally relents and they decide to sue. When Eduardo visits from New York, he is angered to find Sean is living at the house they have rented and is making business decisions for Facebook. After arguing with Mark, Eduardo freezes the company's bank account and returns to New York. Upon returning, Christy argues with Eduardo about his Facebook profile, which still lists him as "single". When Christy questions Eduardo about why he has not changed his Facebook profile, he tells her he does not know how to, further infuriating Christy because she believes he is lying. She cites his profile as evidence he cheated on her with promiscuous women in Silicon Valley and subsequently sets fire to a scarf he has given to her as a gift. While Eduardo extinguishes the fire, Mark reveals on the phone that they have secured money from an angel investor through Parker's contacts. As a result of Christy's arson attempt, Eduardo ends his relationship with her.
Eduardo soon discovers the deal he signed with Sean's investors has allowed them to dilute his share of the company from thirty-four percent to three hundredths of a percent, while maintaining the ownership percentage of all other parties. He confronts Mark and announces his intention to sue him. Later that night, during a party celebrating Facebook's 1 millionth member, Sean and a number of Facebook interns are arrested for possession of cocaine.
The framing device throughout the film shows Mark testifying in depositions in two lawsuits: one filed by the Winklevoss twins, and the other filed by Eduardo. In the final scene a junior lawyer for the defense informs Mark they will be settling with Eduardo, since the sordid details of Facebook's founding and Mark's personality will make a jury highly unsympathetic. The film ends with Mark sending a friend request to Erica on Facebook, and refreshing the page every few seconds waiting for a response.
- Jesse Eisenberg as Mark Zuckerberg
- Andrew Garfield as Eduardo Saverin
- Justin Timberlake as Sean Parker
- Brenda Song as Christy Lee
- Armie Hammer as Cameron Winklevoss/Tyler Winklevoss
- Josh Pence as the body double for Hammer as Tyler Winklevoss
- Max Minghella as Divya Narendra
- Rashida Jones as Marylin Delpy
- Joseph Mazzello as Dustin Moskovitz
- Rooney Mara as Erica Albright
- Dustin Fitzsimons as The Phoenix S-K Club President
- Patrick Mapel as Chris Hughes
- Douglas Urbanski as Larry Summers
- Wallace Langham as Peter Thiel
- Dakota Johnson as Amelia Ritter
- Malese Jow as Alice Cantwel
- Denise Grayson as Gretchen
- Trevor Wright as Josh Thompson
- John Getz as Sy
- Shelby Young as K.C.
- David Selby as Gage
- Jason Flemyng as Spectator (uncredited) Casting
Casting began in early August 2009, and open auditions were held in various states. Jesse Eisenberg was first announced to be attached to the project in September 2009. (Coincidentally, in an interview with Diane Sawyer on ABC's World News with Diane Sawyer, Zuckerberg revealed that Eisenberg's cousin, Eric Fisher, was a Facebook product designer.) Several days later, Justin Timberlake and Andrew Garfield were confirmed to portray the roles of Sean Parker and Eduardo Saverin. In October 2009, Brenda Song, Rooney Mara, Armie Hammer, Shelby Young, and Josh Pence were cast. Max Minghella and Dakota Johnson were also confirmed to star in the film. In a 2009 interview with The Baltimore Sun, Eisenberg said, "Even though I've gotten to be in some wonderful movies, this character seems so much more overtly insensitive in so many ways that seem more real to me in the best way. I don't often get cast as insensitive people, so it feels very comfortable: fresh and exciting, as if you never have to worry about the audience. Not that I worry about the audience anyway – it should be just the furthest thing from your mind. The Social Network is the biggest relief I've ever had in a movie."Filming
Filming for The Social Network began in October 2009 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Scenes were filmed around the campuses of two Massachusetts prep schools, Phillips Academy and Milton Academy. Additional scenes were filmed on the campus of Wheelock College, which was set up to be Harvard's campus. (Harvard has turned down most requests for on-location filming ever since the filming of Love Story (1970), which caused significant physical damage to the campus). Filming took place on the Keyser and Wyman quadrangles in the Homewood campus of Johns Hopkins University from November 2–4, which also doubled for Harvard in the film. The first scene in the film, where Zuckerberg is with his girlfriend, took 99 takes to finish. The film was shot on the Red One digital cinema camera at 4K resolution. The rowing scenes with the Winklevoss brothers were filmed at Community Rowing Inc. in Newton, MA and Henley Royal Regatta. Although a significant portion of the latter half of the film is set in Silicon Valley, the filmmakers opted to shoot those scenes in Los Angeles and Pasadena. Miniature faking process was used in a sequence showing a rowing event at the Henley Royal Regatta.
Armie Hammer, who portrayed the Winklevoss twins, acted alongside body double Josh Pence while his scenes were filmed. His face was later digitally grafted onto the face of Pence during post-production, while other scenes used split-screen photography. Pence himself appears in a cameo role. Hammer states that director David Fincher "likes to push himself and likes to push technology" and is "one of the most technologically minded guys I've ever seen."Soundtrack
On June 1, 2010, it was announced that Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross would score the film. The soundtrack was released September 28 in various formats under the Null Corporation label. Leading up to the release of the soundtrack, a free 5-track EP was made available for download. The White Stripes' song "Ball and Biscuit" can be heard in the opening of the film and the Beatles' song "Baby, You're a Rich Man" concludes the film. Neither song appears on the soundtrack. Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross won the award for best original soundtrack at the 2011 Golden Globe awards.
The first theatrical poster was released on June 18, 2010. The film's first teaser trailer was released on June 25, 2010. The second teaser was released on July 8. The full length theatrical trailer debuted on July 15, 2010, which plays an edited version of the song "Creep", originally by Radiohead, covered by the Belgian choir group Scala & Kolacny Brothers. The trailer was then shown in theaters, prior to the films Inception, Dinner for Schmucks, Salt, Easy A, The Virginity Hit and The Other Guys. Another song used in a trailer for TV featured an instrumental version of the song "Go Do" from the album Go by Jonsi.Response by the principals (film and Facebook)
The film's script was leaked on the Internet in July 2009. In November 2009, executive producer Kevin Spacey said, "The Social Network is probably going to be a lot funnier than people might expect it to be." The Cardinal Courier stated that the film was about "greed, obsession, unpredictability and sex" and asked "although there are over 500 million Facebook users, does this mean Facebook can become a profitable blockbuster movie?" At the D8 conference hosted by D: All Things Digital on June 2, 2010, host Kara Swisher told Zuckerberg she knew he was not happy with The Social Network being based on him, to which he replied, "I just wished that nobody made a movie of me while I was still alive." Zuckerberg stated to Oprah Winfrey that the drama and partying of the film is mostly fiction, explaining "this is my life, so I know it's not so dramatic," and that he spent most of the past six years focusing, working hard, and coding Facebook. Speaking to an audience at Stanford University, Zuckerberg stated that the film portrayed his motivations for creating Facebook inaccurately; instead of an effort to "get girls", he says he created the site because he enjoys "building things". However, he added that the film accurately depicted his real-life wardrobe, saying, "It's interesting the stuff that they focused on getting right – like every single shirt and fleece they had in that movie is actually a shirt or fleece that I own."
Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz called the film a "dramatization of history ... it is interesting to see my past rewritten in a way that emphasizes things that didn't matter," he said. According to Moskovitz:
- A lot of exciting things happened in 2004, but mostly we just worked a lot and stressed out about things; the version in the trailer seems a lot more exciting, so I'm just going to choose to remember that we drank ourselves silly and had a lot of sex with coeds.... The plot of the book/script unabashedly attacked [Zuckerberg], but I actually felt like a lot of his positive qualities come out truthfully in the trailer (soundtrack aside). At the end of the day, they cannot help but portray him as the driven, forward-thinking genius that he is.
Screenwriter Sorkin has stated that, "I don’t want my fidelity to be to the truth; I want it to be to storytelling. What is the big deal about accuracy purely for accuracy’s sake, and can we not have the true be the enemy of the good?"
Much of the negative response to The Social Network has come from technology writers, some of whom saw the film as an attack on new technologies and those responsible for them. Journalist Jeff Jarvis acknowledged the film was "well-crafted" but called it "the anti-social movie", objecting to Sorkin's decision to change various events and characters for dramatic effect, and dismissing it as "the story that those who resist the change society is undergoing want to see." Technology broadcaster Leo Laporte concurred, calling the film "anti-geek and misogynistic". Sorkin responded to these allegations by saying, "I was writing about a very angry and deeply misogynistic group of people".
Andrew Clark of The Guardian wrote that "there's something insidious about this genre of [docudrama] scriptwriting," wondering if "a 26-year-old businessman really deserves to have his name dragged through the mud in a murky mixture of fact and imagination for the general entertainment of the movie-viewing public?" Clark added, "I'm not sure whether Mark Zuckerberg is a punk, a genius or both. But I won't be seeing The Social Network to find out."
Several noteworthy tech journalists and bloggers voiced their opinions of how the film portrays its real-life characters. Mashable founder and CEO Pete Cashmore, blogging for CNN, said: "If the Facebook founder [Zuckerberg] is concerned about being represented as anything but a genius with an industrious work ethic, he can breathe a sigh of relief." Jessi Hempel, a technology writer for Fortune who says she's known Zuckerberg "for a long time", wrote of the film:
- The real-life Zuckerberg was maniacally focused on building a web site that could potentially connect everyone on the planet…By contrast, in the film he seems more obsessed with achieving the largesse that bad boy Sean Parker, an original Napster founder, portrays when he arrives to meet Zuckerberg at a New York restaurant.
- The total and absolute absurdity of the world where the engines of a federal lawsuit get cranked up to adjudicate the hurt feelings (because "our idea was stolen!") of entitled Harvard undergraduates is completely missed by Sorkin. We can't know enough from the film to know whether there was actually any substantial legal claim here. Sorkin has been upfront about the fact that there are fabrications aplenty lacing the story. But from the story as told, we certainly know enough to know that any legal system that would allow these kids to extort $65 million from the most successful business this century should be ashamed of itself. Did Zuckerberg breach his contract? Maybe, for which the damages are more like $650, not $65 million. Did he steal a trade secret? Absolutely not. Did he steal any other "property"? Absolutely not—the code for Facebook was his, and the "idea" of a social network is not a patent. It wasn't justice that gave the twins $65 million; it was the fear of a random and inefficient system of law. That system is a tax on innovation and creativity. That tax is the real villain here, not the innovator it burdened.
In an onstage discussion with The Huffington Post co-founder Arianna Huffington, during Advertising Week 2010 in New York, Facebook's Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg said she had seen the film and it was "very Hollywood" and mainly "fiction". "In real life, he [Zuckerberg] was just sitting around with his friends in front of his computer, ordering pizza," she declared. "Who wants to go see that for two hours?"
Indian-American Divya Narendra said that he was "initially surprised" to see himself portrayed by the non-Indian actor Max Minghella but also admitted that the actor did a "good job in pushing the dialogue forward and creating a sense of urgency in what was a very frustrating period."Critical response
The Social Network has received critical acclaim. Review aggregate Rotten Tomatoes reports that 97% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 261 reviews, with an average score of 9/10 and a critical consensus of: "Impeccably scripted, beautifully directed, and filled with fine performances, The Social Network is a riveting, ambitious example of modern filmmaking at its finest." It has a 100% among "Top Critics". The film also holds a score of 95 based on 42 reviews on Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim" and making it one of the site's highest-rated movies of all time.
Film critic Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, giving it four stars, wrote: "David Fincher's film has the rare quality of being not only as smart as its brilliant hero, but in the same way. It is cocksure, impatient, cold, exciting and instinctively perceptive." Peter Travers of Rolling Stone, gave the film his first full four star rating of the year and said: "The Social Network is the movie of the year. But Fincher and Sorkin triumph by taking it further. Lacing their scathing with an aching sadness, they define the dark irony of the past decade." The Harvard Crimson review called it "flawless" and gave it five stars. Quentin Tarantino listed The Social Network as one of his favorite 20 movies of the year, second to Toy Story 3.
Some reviewers pointed out that the film plays loosely with the facts behind Facebook's founding. Joe Morgenstern in The Wall Street Journal praised the film as exhilarating but noted: "The biographical part takes liberties with its subject. Aaron Sorkin based his supersmart and superbly funny screenplay on a contentious book, Ben Mezrich's The Accidental Billionaires, so everything that's seen isn't necessarily to be believed."
It won Best Picture from the National Society of Film Critics, the New York Film Critics Circle, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and the National Board of Review, making it only the third film in history (after Schindler's List and L. A. Confidential) to sweep the "Big Four" critics.  The film also won the "Hollywood Ensemble Award" from the Hollywood Awards. The Social Network appeared on 78 critics top 10 list for 2010, of those critics 22 had the film in their number one spot.Box office
During its opening weekend in the United States, the film debuted at #1, grossing $22.4 million in 2,771 theaters. The film retained the top spot in its second weekend, dropping only 31.2%, breaking Inception's 32.0% record as the smallest second weekend drop for any number-one film of 2010, while being the third smallest overall behind Secretariat's 25.1% drop and Tooth Fairy's 28.6% drop. As of February 6, 2011, the film has grossed $96.4 million in the United States and $117.7 million elsewhere, for a worldwide total of $214.2 million.Accolades
- The Winklevoss Chang Group, the alleged partnership between ConnectU and i2hubReferences
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No Strings Attached is a 2011 American romantic comedy film starring Natalie Portman and Ashton Kutcher. The film is directed by Ivan Reitman. Emma (Portman) and Adam (Kutcher) are friends who have sex one morning and worry about their friendship being ruined. They make a pact to have "no strings attached", to have casual sex without falling in love with each other. The film was released in the United States and Canada on January 21, 2011
Emma (Portman) and Adam (Kutcher) are friends who keep running into each other. Emma is a doctor and Adam works in the production of television. Emma doesn't believe in love and Adam's dad is dating his ex-girlfriend.
One day after they meet up again, Adam ends up passed out on Emma's couch and while looking for his clothes, they have sex. They're worried about their friendship being ruined so they make a pact to have casual sex without falling in love with each other, and without holding hands or hugging. The more they have sex, the greater the feelings between the two get.
Adam asks Emma out on Valentines Day which results in the two of them breaking up. With the upcoming event of her sisters wedding, Emma realizes she loves Adam. She phones him, but his reaction is reserved. She drives back to his house, but sees him there walking into the house with another woman, his coworker. On her way back to her sisters wedding, she gets a call from a coworker telling her Adam's father is in the hospital.
When she gets there, the two share a heartfelt love session and Adam states "If you come any closer, I'm never going to let you go." She walks up to him and they kiss. The movie ends with them snuggling, something Emma was opposed to while they were just having casual sex.
- Natalie Portman as Dr. Emma K. Kurtzman
- Ashton Kutcher as Adam Franklin
- Jake M. Johnson as Eli
- Cary Elwes as Dr. Metzner
- Mindy Kaling as Shira
- Kevin Kline as Alvin Franklin
- Greta Gerwig as Patrice
- Chris "Ludacris" Bridges as Wallace
- Olivia Thirlby as Katie Kurtzman
- Lake Bell as Lucy
- Ophelia Lovibond as Vanessa
- Talia Balsam as Sandra Kurtzman
- Guy Branum as Guy
- Phil LaMarr as Police Officer
- Adhir Kalyan as Kevin
- Ben Lawson as Sam
- Matthew Moy as Chuck Theatrical run
No Strings Attached had its world premiere on January 11, 2011 at the Fox Village Theater in Los Angeles, California. The film was released in 3,018 theaters in the United States and Canada on January 21, 2011. Its target demographic was women between 17 and 24 years old, and its primary competition was The Dilemma. Interest tracking reflected the target demographic's gaining interest in the film leading up to its release, and tracking also revealed "good early awareness" from Hispanic audiences. The studio predicted for the film to gross in the "mid-to-high teens" millions, similar to past romantic comedies rated "R" (restricted to 17 years old and up) by the Motion Picture Association of America. With No Strings Attached as the only wide opener in the United States and Canada, it was uncertain if it would rank first at the box office above The Green Hornet, which opened the previous weekend in first place with $33.5 million.
Ultimately, No Strings Attached beat The Green Hornet with an opening weekend gross of $20.3 million. Its opening was better than expected for the genre. The attendance was "overwhelmingly female" with 70% of the audience being women. According to CinemaScore, audiences under the age of 25 gave the film an "A-" grade while audiences over the age of 25 gave it a "B" grade. Future grosses are expected to be dependent on the younger demographic.
The film has grossed $62.5 million in the United States and Canada and $6.9 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $69.4 million.
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 52% based on reviews from 127 critics and reports a rating average of 5.4 out of 10. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 51 based on 35 reviews. Rotten Tomatoes reported that critics described No Strings Attached as having "moments of warmth and sweetness that are spoiled by a predictable narrative and a dirty mind." It said, "The pundits say Portman and Kutcher keep things genial and easygoing, but they're let down by a middling script that shoehorns in a little too much raunchy material."
Critic David Edelstein described No Strings Attached as a film with "a supposedly feminist veneer...(that) never makes the case for Emma's point of view. It's almost a feminist backlash movie, and it didn't have to be. There are plenty of reasons for brilliant young women, especially with the stress of a medical career, to approach time- and emotion-consuming relationships warily." He expressed disappointment on overuse of stock characters, as well as Reitman's "heavy-handed" direction and a story that is ultimately "corny and contrived and conservative."See also
- No Strings Attached: Music from the Motion Picture
- Friends with Benefits (film), an upcoming romantic comedy film also about casual sex
- List of American films of 2011 References
- ^ a b McClintock, Pamela (January 20, 2011). "Natalie Portman's 'No Strings Attached' Goes Up Against 'Green Hornet' at the Box Office". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/natalie-portmans-no-strings-attached-74076.
- ^ a b c "No Strings Attached (2011)". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=friendswithbenefits.htm. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
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- ^ Rooney, David (May 5, 2010). "Making a Success of Her Messiness on Two Coasts". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/theater/09meriwether.html.
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Mortal Kombat: Rebirth is a 2010 action short film directed by Kevin Tancharoen with fight choreography by Larnell Stovall who also choreographed the recent Undisputed III: Redemption. Based on the Mortal Kombat series of fighting games, the short-film "actually was made by the director to sell Warner Bros. on his vision for a reimagined Mortal Kombat film."
The short-film features an alternate version of the Mortal Kombat universe. The characters of the game are portrayed with vastly different origins, based on realism. There is no mention of Outworld or any other supernatural elements, although the tournament itself is a main part of the storyline in this short. Tancharoen himself has noted that he wouldn't shy away from supernatural elements entirely, but they have to be "done in a very tasteful way".
The film follows Deacon City Police Captain Jackson Briggs as he informs assassin Hanzo Hasashi about the criminals Reptile and Baraka; the latter has recently killed actor-turned-undercover-officer Johnny Cage in a fight. Briggs believes they were both working for a man named Shang Tsung. He asks Hasashi to kill them in a mysterious tournament hosted by Tsung. When offered his freedom in exchange for accomplishing such tasks, Hasashi reveals that he willingly had himself incarcerated—and could free himself at any time. Then Sonya Blade arrives with a folder and informs Hasashi that his enemy Sub-Zero is alive and the one he killed was his older brother. It becomes clear to Hasashi that the terms of his participation in the tournament involve killing Reptile, Baraka and Shang Tsung in return for access to Sub-Zero. Since the real Sub-Zero will be at the tournament, Hasashi, now calling himself Scorpion, agrees to participate.
- Michael Jai White as Jackson Briggs, a captain in the Deacon City Police Department. On his office door at the beginning of the film, the last two letters of his first name are faded, thus reading as "Jacks", a nod to "Jax". IGN contacted Michael Jai White's representatives and asked about the video, and they answered White believed the shoot was a marketing component for Mortal Kombat 9. He noted that the recent, grittier reimaginings of both Spider-Man and Batman were success, and expects the same to happen to Mortal Kombat.
- Jeri Ryan as Sonya Blade, Jackson Briggs's partner. Ryan said she took the part as a favor to a friend.
- Matt Mullins as Johnny Cage, a former movie star that became an undercover agent after his Hollywood career died. In a short flashback, he is killed by Baraka. When asked about how he got involved in the project, Mullins said: "I had known Kevin [Tancharoen] for about five years, but I never had a chance to work with him. A few months ago I got a call from Kevin about being involved in a short that he was planning to shoot. He sent me the script and I was blown away. When I sat down to meet with him, and he explained his vision, I was so excited to be involved and could not wait to start."
- Lateef Crowder as Alan Zane / Baraka, a plastic surgeon who, after accidentally killing a patient, went on to kill two dozen more. Faced with the shame of being labeled a failed doctor, Zane pierced his face, sharpened his teeth, and surgically attached a pair of metal blades to his forearms. In a short flashback, he fights Johnny Cage, finally decapitating him with his arm blades.
- Ian Anthony Dale as Hanzo Hasashi / Scorpion, the top assassin of the Shirai Ryu who offered himself up to the police for killing the man he thought was his nemesis. In keeping with the video game series, his eyes are completely white and his signature spear weapon also appears. His trademark battle-cry ("Get over here!" can also be heard at the ending.
- Richard Dorton as Reptile, a mass-murderer born with a rare genetic disorder, Harlequin-type ichthyosis, in which his skin produces too many cells and his eyelids are formed inside out. It is said he likes to devour the heads of his victims, which is a nod to his "Head Eat" Fatality from the video game series.
- James Lew as Shang Tsung who is seen in the photograph on the YouTube video's primary image preview.
Initially appearing on YouTube, the video was received with confusion by websites such as IGN and 1UP.com, both of which were uncertain if the video was a viral marketing ploy to promote either a new film or a video game. Contradicting reports came from the actors involved, with White's representatives believing it was an advertisement for an upcoming Mortal Kombat game, while Ryan admitted her appearance was as a favor to a friend and described the video as a pitch for a film. Tancharoen made the movie for $7,500.
Series creator Ed Boon himself has noted that the film was "awesome" and had "no idea it was being made", though he did note that "probably crosses the line" as far as "re-imagining" goes. He later stated that he thought it was "incredibly well done" and that it was "a legitimate alternate universe Mortal Kombat".
Rumours circulated the internet that Tancharoen had successfully acquired the rights to create a mini series on Mortal Kombat. These were confirmed on January 24, 2011, as it was officially announced that an official 10-episode web mini-series based on the short had been greenlit by Warner Bros. The series will be written by Kevin Tancharoen and Spartacus: Blood and Sand writers Todd Helbing and Aaron Helbing, with Tancharoen directing. Michael Jai White and Jeri Ryan will reprise their roles as Jax and Sonya Blade, respectively. Shooting is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in February. Characters that are rumored to be included from the Mortal Kombat franchise are Shang Tsung, Liu Kang, Sub-Zero, Kabal, Kitana, Mileena and Scorpion. The series will begin April 19th, the same day the video game is released.
- ^ ComingSoon
- ^ a b Weintraub, Steve (2010-06-09). "Interview with MORTAL KOMBAT: REBIRTH Director Kevin Tancharoen; Talks About What He Wants to do in a Feature Version!". Collider. Collider. http://www.collider.com/2010/06/09/kevin-tancharoen-interview-mortal-kombat-rebirth-feature-film/. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- ^ IGN
- ^ 'Mortal Kombat:Rebirth' Star Michael Jai White in an Exclusive Interview
- ^ 1UP
- ^ CraveOnline
- ^ "Original Mortal Kombat:Rebirth YouTube video upload source". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_MqZn7E-mk.
- ^ "Confirmed by James Lew on Twitter". http://twitter.com/thejameslew/status/15942470820.
- ^ Pirrello, Phil. "Best. Mortal Kombat Movie. Ever?". IGN. IGN Entertainment. http://movies.ign.com/articles/109/1095467p1.html. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
- ^ Pigna, Kris (2010-06-09). "Mortal Kombat Trailer is Director's Pitch for MK Film". 1UP.com. UGO Networks. http://www.1up.com/do/newsStory?cId=3179728. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
- ^ http://twitter.com/noobde/status/15885824409
- ^ http://twitter.com/noobde/status/15885875285
- ^ http://twitter.com/noobde/status/15886974857
- ^ Graft, Kris (2010-08-04). "Back To Basics With Mortal Kombat". Gamasutra. p. 3. http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/5948/back_to_basics_with_mortal_kombat.php?page=3. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- ^ http://twitter.com/#!/JeriLRyan/status/34343834640982017
- ^ "Warner Premiere's 'Mortal Kombat' Tourney Goes Websides!". Bloody Disgusting. http://www.bloody-disgusting.com/news/23052. Retrieved 2011-01-14.
- ^ "That Incredible Mortal Kombat Trailer Is Now A Series". Kotaku. http://kotaku.com/5734272/that-incredible-mortal-kombat-trailer-is-now-a-series. Retrieved 2011-01-14.